No,it didn't, or at least shouldn't have backfired on Germany if Germany had played its cards right.
First, when Lenin started a revolution, it took Russia out of World War I and solved the immediate problem.
Second, Lenin made the Peace of Brest-Litovsk ceding large parts of "Russia" including the future Poland, Baltic States, Belarus, and large chunks of the Ukraine. It was such a favorable deal that Germany should have made peace in the West, by offering to evacuate France and Belgium, just to enjoy her new gains in the East.
Third, when the Soviet Union became Communist, she became a "pariah" nation to the West. That meant that after World War I, Germany was able to secretly test tank and air tactics on Soviet soil, with the cooperation of the Soviets, following the 1922 Treaty of Rapallo. They had an implicit, if not explicit alliance that Hitler initially "honored" and formalized (in 1939), before turning on the Soviet Union in 1941.
Under the so-called Heartland Theory in vogue in the early 20th century, "whoever" (Germany or Russia) controlled eastern Europe would dominate the "heartland" of "World Island" (the Eurasian land mass). Under Brest-Litovsk, Germany dominated the heartland; under Rapallo, Germany and the Soviet Union together could dominate world island, through their joint control of the heartland. From there, it was only one step to dominating the world. That was a large opportunity set to be gained from sending Lenin to Russia.