In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which greatly increased the federal government’s power concerning personal property. Using the Commerce Clause and the recent SCOTUS decision in Wickard v. Filburn, Congress was able to legislate whether businesses, rather than states, can discriminate. Title VII says:
UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES SEC. 2000e-2. [Section 703]
(a) Employer practices
It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer - (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
However, it seems as though the Civil Rights Act never actually accomplished what it meant to. Soon after the Act was enacted, employers began requiring high school diplomas and standardized tests at a time when education was very difficult for minorities, which is still prevalent today.
How successful was this subsection of the Act, how did it affect public opinion, and how effective was it at curbing racism in employment compared to the actual Civil Rights Movement and time? What were its successes and failures?