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I was reading about Mohenjo-daro sites in current day Pakistan.

The text talked about something called "lower town". What is lower town in that context?

"Kalibangan is situated on the left bank of the river Ghaggar in Rajasthan. There is same pattern of planning as at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. There is a citadel on the West side and a lower town on the east."

SOURCE: Above excerpt is taken from the book titled "Ancient India", by V. D. Mahajan, S Chand Publications.

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    What were you reading? Please supply the context of the phrase.
    – Semaphore
    Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 4:49
  • I have edited my question as suggested. Please refer to the question. Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 5:40
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    Since you're so reluctant to share context, lower town is mainly residential as opposed to upper which was for their citadel/acropolis. Look up "Indus valley or Harappan Architecture and Town Planning".
    – J Asia
    Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 6:07
  • I was reading a book titled "Ancient India" by V. D. Mahajan, S Chand Publications. Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 13:28
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    Well I'm seeing that there is something considered to be a citadel, and the terminology pops up on Google autofill: google.com/…
    – John Dee
    Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 14:55

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This is a common pattern in towns that have grown around a fortress, in many cultures. The fortress is placed on a hill, since that makes attacking it harder.

People migrate to the area, since anyone who can build a fortress has money, and get jobs there, or run businesses that sell to the fortress inhabitants. A town gradually appears, but there isn't room for it on the hill, so it is on lower ground. Hence a "Lower town."

Edit: The same process also happens for un-fortified towns built on hilltops. It is a bit slower, because the town tends to grow incrementally down the hill, but you still end up with upper and lower parts of the town.

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  • Oh! I get that. Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 13:29
  • Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were not fortified. It did have some towers.
    – John Dee
    Commented Jan 16, 2018 at 14:46

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