In the Mudéjar revolt of 1264–66, the recently conquered Muslim subjects (also called Mudéjars) in Castile rebelled against the crown, and were helped by the Muslim Kingdom of Granada. In the beginning, the rebels took towns with garrison and castles, e.g. Jerez as well as "three hundred cities, great towns and castles" (probably an exaggeration, but still).

Other than the outside forces of Granada, which might be substantial because it is an independent kingdom, how were the rebelling Muslim subjects themselves armed? Given that they were able to take cities and castles, I assume they were quite well-armed. Did they have swords, pikes, bows? How about cavalry? What kind of siege weapons did they have, if any? How did they get it, was it normal for them to have access to these as Castile's subjects?

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I'd suspect they weren't well armed, but not without weapons...little to no armor is likely though.

The revolt you're referring to here occurred due to the Castilian policy of expelling Muslims after the collapse of the Almohad Caliphate. The Almohads had previously wrestled control of the region from the Almoravid dynasty who had battled the Castilian forces earlier https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sagrajas. The entire region saw a good 3 or 4 centuries of armed conflict in one manner or another by the time of this rebellion and needing to be armed was a way of life by this point.

The Reconquista is the movement that saw the Christian kings of Castile, Leon, and Aragon retake much of Spain from the Muslim powers of the south. During the Reconquista, there are a few instances were the local population took up arms to defend itself such as Seville. Portuguese and Castilian forces besieged Seville, and the defending Almohads knew they couldn't do anything but hide and await reinforcement. This policy aggravated the local population, who took up arms themselves and attempted to break the siege (ended horribly for the Seville locals). It's not a unique example, the people of these cities were quite capable of taking up any arms they could and defending themselves and ultimately it was these peoples that composed the rebels during the Mudéjar revolt.

Trying to find a better source on this (it's proving challenging, I can find documentation of the battles but nothing on the troop arms involved), but I suspect these were not the best equipped rebels relying on weapons (spears, swords, and shields) from previous conflicts/dynasties of the region. The local populations seemed quite capable of arming themselves with the weapons leftover from previous conflicts. Very doubtful there was much for Calvary here.

This link will show that the Almohads had a variety of siege weapons and it would make sense that the rebels still had access to some of this (either the knowledge to build it as required for sieges, or previously existing equipment). It makes references to mangonels - kinda the shotgun approach to rock throwing artillery - so I would suspect the majority of the siege weapons fit into the 'rock thrower' category designed to pound away at walls until they can be breached.

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