Let me open by saying this is emphatically not a politically motivated dig at any modern or historical culture. I recognize that it can be difficult to answer a question about cultural values, let alone the possible causes of said values, while keeping up good standards of scholarship. If this question needs editing to better fit site rules please advise how in the comments before voting to close.
A emphasis on the dangers of religious pollution is a recognizable part of many ancient and medieval cultures, but it would appear some much more than others. The first three societies that come to my own mind are ancient Greece, classical and medieval Japan, and the medieval Islamic world. All of these cultures, deservedly or not, also have a strong reputation for controlling the movement, social interactions, and sexuality of at least upper class women.
Religious and sexual purity are not the same thing, but the two are often closely linked in our own time. It seems fairly intuitive to me that societies which put greater emphasis on avoiding spiritual pollution might also be more likely to exercise tight control over women. (But I am of course not implying the former is required for the latter.) I was wondering if speaking in terms of social history or anthropology, there's anything meaningful to be said about a relationship between these two values? Alternatively, feel free to offer counterexamples or evidence that I'm seeing something that's not really there.
Pollution, as best I can define it: The idea that immoral, unclean, or ritualistically improper actions can spiritually defile an individual or community and that this necessitates some proscribed cleansing action, presumably to avoid further contamination or spiritual peril. Pretty much every major religion and culture I'm aware of incorporates the notion to some extent
For an emphasis on the dangers of religious pollution to be "recognizable" within a culture, it should exhibit an occupation with such themes in its art and religious culture that is noticeably (or at least, very plausibly) greater than other comparable societies that are near it in time or space.
Ancient Greece and spiritual pollution has been covered on this site before. In particular "[Greek] mythology abounds in instances of extreme pollutions such as incest, parricide, and cannibalism." I've also read from multiple sources that ancient Greeks had a low opinion of women, strictly limited their property and rights. "Throughout antiquity most Greek women had few or no civil rights and many enjoyed little freedom of choice or mobility."
Classical Japan has been noticeably preoccupied with their own concept of religious pollution going back to the time when the capital would be moved on the death of the emperor. I would characterize gender relations in medieval Japan as complex, but upper class women in particular have faced drastic limits in mobility, legal rights, and education. Interestingly, the linked article attributes this primarily to Buddhism imported from China. Depending on the continuity of local ideas about pollution this might actually constitute very good evidence against the proposed relationship.
The Medieval Islamic World is has extensive and scrupulous rules regarding cleanliness and purification. That said, after considering both the vast diversity and political relevancy of women in the Islamic world, I frankly decided it was imprudent of me to use it as an example without reading much, much more. If more knowledgeable people then me want to discuss it in an answer, whether as evidence for or against the possible relationship, then by all means.
Other possible societies to draw upon might include medieval Europe, India, and (as per the comments) the ancient Judaic world.