I wanted to post this question and the answer I found, because I stumbled across a gold mine for this sort of data, The Minerals Yearbooks.
Edit: I've since found an alternate website for the same yearbooks, which lets you download the chapters in pdf form, but for some reason you cannot get the whole report as one giant pdf.
For example, the 1941 yearbook, page 1031:
Sadly, the smallest producers are all agglomerated into "Other States", but you can see their total is so tiny, it's hard to imagine they could matter in the war.
More sadly, the website does not let you download it as a PDF unless you have some university login. So I had to use the built-in viewer, but that's better than total paywalling.
I took the liberty of tabulating the 1940 entries myself and arranging them by rough geographic area. I also converted from Millions of Barrels per year to Millions of Metric Tons per year, using the density figure of 870 kg/cubic meter.
California 225 M bbl/year 31.1 Mt/year
Montana 007 M bbl/year 01.0 Mt/year
Wyoming 026 M bbl/year 03.6 Mt/year
Colorado 002 M bbl/year 00.3 Mt/year
New Mexico 039 M bbl/year 05.4 Mt/year
Texas 487 M bbl/year 67.4 Mt/year
Oklahoma 156 M bbl/year 21.6 Mt/year
Kansas 066 M bbl/year 09.1 Mt/year
Nebraska 0.3 M bbl/year 00.04 Mt/year
Arkansas 026 M bbl/year 03.6 Mt/year
Louisiana 100 M bbl/year 13.8 Mt/year
Mississippi 004 M bbl/year 00.6 Mt/year
Michigan 020 M bbl/year 02.8 Mt/year
Ohio 003 M bbl/year 00.4 Mt/year
Pennsylvania 017 M bbl/year 02.4 Mt/year
Illinois 148 M bbl/year 20.4 Mt/year
Indiana 007 M bbl/year 01.0 Mt/year
New York 005 M bbl/year 00.7 Mt/year
West Virginia 003 M bbl/year 00.4 Mt/year
Kentucky 005 M bbl/year 00.7 Mt/year
Other States 071 K bbl/year 00.01 Mt/year
Just for comparison, California alone was producing a little more oil than the entire Soviet Union, and New Mexico was producing a little less than Romania. Source (Mineral and Industrial Production, page 147)
I haven't looked in detail at other parts of the yearbook yet, but it appears it has many other industrial production listed state-by-state. I saw copper, zinc, and iron, for example. That's why I think this may be the goldmine I've been looking for for so long, and that's why I wanted to share this.