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From Wikipedia article on the Temple of Trajan in Rome:

The Temple of Trajan was a Roman temple dedicated to the emperor Trajan and his wife Plotina after his deification by the Roman Senate. It was built in the Forum of Trajan (Rome), by Trajan's adoptive son and successor Hadrian, between 125 and 138. It was destroyed in the Middle Ages.

The same article states that the exact place of it is unknown.

Is it known how and when exactly was destroyed?

Google searching this can be tricky, as most results are from a Trajan Temple in Pergamon (destroyed by an earthquake), and from another Trajan Temple in Antioch (burnt down by Emperor Jovian).

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The Temple of Trajan has not actually been excavated, hence the ambiguity surrounding its fate. However, it is thought to have been at where the 16th century Santa Maria di Loreto is presently located. It was not unusual for Medieval or Renaissance churches to be built on ancient temples.

Excavations of the [Loreto] foundations disclosed a number of large fragments of marble, probably from the Temple of the Deified Trajan; and Michelangelo may have carved one of the larger pieces into the base for the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius.

Packer, James E. The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments in Brief. University of California Press, 2001.

Construction on the Loreto Church began in 1507, though it was known to have been built over an earlier chapel. This implies that the Temple of Trajan was destroyed some time in the 15th century, probably by having a chapel built over its foundations and its marble recycled.

In all likelihood, the temple was in a state of extreme disrepair before its final destruction.

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