Turns out the answer to your question touches on the rise and fall of the Hittites, and the rise of the Phoenicians (and later Carthaginians).
Metals were a large part of the return cargo on the Phoenicians' trade routes at that time, and Iron ores in particular seem to have been one of the main cargoes that were carried back on the Sardinian branch of the network. (The Iberian branch was more into Silver ores)
The only major source before that appears to have been in the Taurus mountains in central Anatolia, which helps explain why polities based there (eg: Hittites) were the first to develop widespread use of iron weapons, and were militarily dominant until the Phonecians developed that alternate source for iron.
The Hittites at their Greatest Extent (14th Century BCE)