Napoleon attended school for military officers, so it stands to reason they would have some books around which they based their curriculum. Are there any complete and publicly available recordings of such books (from any nation at this time period) available?
As I mentioned in the comments, there are many such manuals. The following have been digitised and made available as downloadable PDF files from Archive.org:
Réglement concernant l'exercice et les manœuvres de l'infanterie, also known as "l’ordre mixte" or simply the "[manual of 1791]"
In addition, I found this Bibliography of French Military Manuals and Instructions Concerning the Napoleonic Period, which appears quite exhaustive, although you would need to visit the listed archives to consult the documents.
Great Britain / United Kingdom :
(It can be instructive to see how this manual changed over the period to incorporate lessons learned and developments in weapons and tactics.)
Instructions for the Drill, and the Methods of Performing the Eighteen Manoeuvres - John Russell (1804)
Vorlesungen über die Taktik der Reuterey, von Einem Obersten der Reuterey - Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Bismark (1818)
Handbuch für Officiere, in den anwendbaren Theilen der KriegesWissenschaften Von der Artillerie - Gerhard von Scharnhorst (1787)
(These manuals don't appear to be available on Archive.org, but can be found on Google Books)
Tratado de Artilleria Vol 1 - Don Tomas de Morla (1816)
Tratado de Artilleria Vol 2 - Don Tomas de Morla (1816)
Tratado de Artilleria Vol 3 - Don Tomas de Morla (1816)
A hand book for infantry: containing the first principles of military discipline - William Duane (1814)
In addition, Professor Kenneth Johnson (currently Deputy Department Chair of the Department of Research at the United States Air University’s Air Command and Staff College) wrote a paper in 2011 titled A Soldier Is Not a Soldier Without Training (PDF download), in which he discusses the training given to Napoleon's armies over time. He describes several of the texts that were used in his paper, which might be of interest to you.
Napoleon himself recommended
Peruse again and again the campaigns of Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne, Engene, and Frederick. Model yourself upon them. This is the only means of becoming a great captain, and of acquiring the secret of the art of war.
Even better, Google Books has:
- Military Studies by Marshal Ney
- Notes on Skirmishing in Davout's Corps by General de Division Morand
- Memoirs of Napoleon by Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne (en Francais)
The following are the detailed French correspondence for the 1809 campaign in Germany and Austria. (Unfortunately I don't know of any digitized English translations.) Although not explicitly textbooks, much can be learned from
the directives, after action reports, and logistical preparation evidenced through the campaign.
- Campagne de 1809 - Tome Premiere by Saski
- Campagne de 1809 - Tome Deuxieme by Saski
- Campagne de 1809 - Tome Troisieme by Saski
Similarly, here are the Austrian accounts.
- Oesterreichischer Krieg gegen Frankreich von 1809
As an example of what is available at Archive.org, here is a search of all digitized books in that archive, printed between 1757 and 1814 and with Frederick the Great listed as a subject. It includes amongst other treasures Jomini's multi-volume comparison of Frederick's campaigns to Napoleons.