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In 1846-47 the United States conquered Mexican California, gradually imposing its legal system. Bancroft says the "first jury empanelled" in California was in Monterey in the case of Graham v. Roussillon, September 4th, 1846.

On August 14th of 1847, Pedro Gómez of Santa Cruz was tried and sentenced to death for the murder of his wife, Bárbara. Before this case, was anyone else tried for murder in U.S. California?

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    No doubt there were some murders committed in 1846-1847, but murders of Indians by white persons and so were not investigated by the law, if the white inhabitants of California in that era were anything like those who came during the Gold Rush.. – MAGolding Jul 20 '18 at 19:36
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    The population was exceedingly low at that time. In 1846, the non-native population of the entire state was on the order of 10,000. – Steven Burnap Jul 21 '18 at 1:03

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