What provisions or restrictions (civil and/or military) were in place in the summer of 1945 which governed movement between the four partitioned zones of occupation (British, American, French, Russian) in post-war Germany? What kind of permits or passes were required for movement of civilian and military personnel between the zones? How were they acquired? Did it vary based on the occupying power or was there a set of uniform transit restrictions?
Post-Nazi German Occupation Zone Borders.
Source: Wikipedia - Allied-Occupied Germany
[Note: if you are not interested in the context of the Question, just skip this and scroll down to the bold text paragraph below]
The reason I ask is from reading one particular episode in Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America, Annie Jacobsen (Little, Brown and Company, 2014) as follows.
During an interrogation visit in June 1945 to Camp Dustbin (a British counterpart of Ashcan, Camp Dustbin was in Castle Kransberg near Frankfurt am Main, and housed prisoners of a more technical inclination including Albert Speer and Wernher von Braun), British Major Edmund Tilley (part of CIOS chemical weapons team, which later was absorbed into FIAT), learned that Dr. Otto Ambros had been questioned several times by Third Army soldiers but had not been detained. For some reason unknown to Tilley, Third Army had not been informed that Ambros was wanted for war crimes, or that he had served as IG Farben's chief of chemical weapons production for the Third Reich, and was the plant manager at Farben's Buna factory at Auschwitz.
Tilley informed his FIAT superiors at Dustbin about Ambros. The information was relayed to CROWCASS, which then notified SHAEF, insisting that Ambros be arrested and turned over to Sixth Army Group. By the time a Sixth Army team arrived at Ambros's home in Gendorf, he was gone. American Lt. Colonel Philip Tarr (who was actually Tilley's CIOS/FIAT team member) had spirited him away. (Tarr was acting in behalf of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service as a member of the Enemy Equipment Intelligence Service Team Number One). Tarr had whisked Ambros to Heidelberg for a special task regarding locating hidden documents about tabun gas.
Ambros was released by Tarr, along with another Farben chemist named "Stumpfl" who had worked previously with Ambros, to go retrieve the documents at a factory in Hanau. U.S. CIC personnel arrested Ambros and Stumpfl in Hanau after they had retrieved the hidden documents. Ambros explained to CIC about their mission for Col. Tarr in Heidelberg. The CIC personnel contacted Heidelberg and the two Germans were released (but CIC retained the documents). Upon release, Ambros got in contact with his own network of spies and learned of the arrest order SHAEF had given to U.S. Sixth Army, so instead of returning to Tarr, the two Germans slipped away to Villa Kohlhof near Heidelberg where a staff of Farben employees housed them.
CIOS / FIAT officials from Dustbin finally got in touch with Tarr and instructed him to return with Ambros, but Tarr no longer had custody or control of Ambros, so he did nothing. Major Tilley went searching for Ambros himself and found him at Villa Kohlhof. Tilley intended to take Ambros back to Dustbin but Col. Tarr intervened by lobbying the British Ministry of Supply (responsible for British chemical warfare issues) without success, then flew to Paris and faked a telegram back to Dustbin, pretending to be "Colonel J. T. M. Childs" with the British Ministry of Supply, ordering the release of all Farben chemical warfare scientists at Dustbin (Ambros was not yet in custody at Dustbin though). Officers at Dustbin smelled a rat and contacted the real Col. Childs, who confirmed that the message was a forgery.
But in all the confusion Dr. Ambros slipped away, and, as found on page 157 of Jacobsen's book:
Ambros was able to evade capture by fleeing into the saftey of the French zone.
Several pages of more intrigue and other episodes unfold in Jacobsen's book, until we come back to this on page 182 where we find this:
Initial attempts to capture Dr. Ambros maintained the fiction of civility. "At the end of August or the beginning of September 1945, an attempt was made to induce Ambros to return to the American zone," Tilley wrote in a FIAT report. In response, "Ambros claimed to be unable to return then as the French authorities would not permit him to leave the French zone." Major Tilley knew this was a lie. Ambros regularly traveled back and forth between Ludwigshafen, in the French zone, and the IG Farben guesthouse, Villa Kohlhof, outside Heidelberg, in the American zone.
A sting operation was set up to lure him out, but it failed (Ambros learned it was a sting op through his intelligence network). Long story short, Ambros was eventually caught due to his own hubris. He believed he was untouchable and got careless.
But why didn't Major Tilley just go to the French zone and arrest him? If Dr. Ambros could freely move back and forth, why couldn't Tilley? What kind of passes or permits or transit papers were required for civilian and military personnel to travel between zones at this early post-war stage (Summer and early Autumn, 1945)?
[Note that American Lt. Col. Tarr had no problem leaving the American occupied zone on a moment's notice to fly to Paris, France in order to fake the telegram back to Dustbin.]
Jacobsen does not explain this aspect of the story. I have been searching the following for information on inter-zone travel authorization requirements, but to no avail thus far:
- Wikipedia - History of Germany: Four Occupation Zones section
- Wikipedia - Allied Control Council (ACC)
- Wikipedia - Potsdam Agreement
- Wikipedia - Eurpoean Advisory Commission (EAC)
- Wikipedia - Allied Occupied Germany
- Encyclopedia Britannica - Germany: The Era of Partition
- South China Morning Post - Division of Germany after WWII
For the Curious
Lt. Col. Tarr's actions were some of the seeds (from the chemical warfare side) of what would become Operation Overcast, which later became Operation (or Project) Paperclip.