Before the development of the movable type printing press there was no such thing as "publication for the mass market". This meant that books were much rarer, and more expensive, than we are today used to.
Also if you are thinking of a modern pocketbook that could be conveniently referred to in a market place, that form factor was not yet seen as generally useful.
Finally, labour costs even for relatively skilled labour were much less than today. For anyone of means sufficient to allow for travel it would have been simpler and less expensive, as well as more functional, to hire a local translator than to acquire a (very specialized) type of book to allow for limited conversation.
However if you are thinking more along the lines of text easily translated, for learning practice, Caesar's Gallic Wars has been derided as such since its origin. It was deliberately written to be easily read to, and by, the lower classes of Rome, and has been used as a Latin Primer ever since. Furthering its attraction, it's a good war story - and with most Classical Scholars traditionally being men and boys, that was a definite plus.