Due to some political statements made on October 30th (today), I would like to know how someone became a citizen of the United States prior to the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution.
There is a related question for how the first American citizens were granted citizenship, which I believe is a different question. First the question dealt with the ratification of the original constitution and those already here. Second, the accepted answer provides evidence to the Articles of Confederation which is a different document to the US Constitution.
An ideal answer would focus on how any person in the United States would become a citizen through the naturalization process. The answer would need to address the time between the ratification of the US Constitution (1789) and the adoption of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution (1868).