Prior to Gallup and Roper et al in the 1930's and The Literary Digest in 1916, what was the first election straw poll in US elections? Three sources that I found cite three different answers (though all agree it took place in the election of 1824):

  • Wikipedia says it was The Aru Pennsylvanian;
  • Tom W. Smith says George Gallup himself cited pre-election tallies in North Carolina and Delaware as being the first polls, as found in this article on JStor: The First Straw?: A Study of the Origins of Election Polls, Tom W. Smith, The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 21-36, Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Association for Public Opinion Research;
  • Elections A to Z, edited by David Tarr, Bon Benenson, indicates

    The first published presidential poll was in the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian on July 24, 1824. The publication's straw vote among the people in Wilmington and Newark, Delaware showed a preference for Andrew Jackson over John Quincy Adams.

Which, if any of these, is correct in identifying the first public opinion polls in US election history?

  • The text here refers to presidential elections while the title does not; do you want to exclude instances of pre-election polling on other issues? Nov 28, 2018 at 23:14
  • @AaronBrick When I started searching for the earliest public opinion polls, I was open to any polling topic, but it seems prior to to about 1896 any polling performed was related to elections, more specifically presidential elections (which is why the text mentions what I found with regards to the earliest polls I could find, which were the 1824 presidential election). Polling on other issues appears to have come later, around the turn of the century. If there are examples of earlier public opinion polls prior to the 1824 election, that would be acceptable. Deleted "presidential" in text
    – Kerry L
    Nov 29, 2018 at 0:05
  • Did you manage to read the whole JStor article? If the answer isn't there, it may well be that the date of the first straw poll can't be established with much certainty... Nov 29, 2018 at 1:08
  • @LarsBosteen no unfortunately I don't have access to the full article, just one page :-(
    – Kerry L
    Nov 29, 2018 at 1:15
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    It's entirely possible that all are correct. This article on the evolution of polling in the US states simply that "... the 1824 presidential election,when informal trial heat tallies were taken in scattered taverns, militia offices, and public meetings". Nov 29, 2018 at 3:43

1 Answer 1


It seems that the confusion in this case stems from a bad edit to the Wikipedia page on 18 June 2015 where the name of the newspaper that conducted the first poll was changed from the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian to the Aru Pennsylvanian.

However, it seems that the Library of Congress has no record of any newspaper titled the Aru Pennsylvanian, only The Pennsylvanian, published in Harrisburg from 10 January 1824 to 1 January 1825, which we can safely assume to be the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian mentioned in other sources that discuss early polls.

[The impact of Wikipedia can be seen by searching on Google for "Aru Pennsylvanian", and noting the similarity of the wording in the articles retrieved by the search!]

The poll published in the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian on 24 July 1824 wasn't actually carried out in Harrisburg. As the article The First Political Poll, by Dr. G. Terry Madonna and Dr. Michael Young, observes:

"... Strangely enough, the poll was conducted not in Pennsylvania but in Delaware.

The newspaper surveyed groups of citizens in Wilmington during July 1824, asking about their presidential favorites.

Which explains the comment attributed to George Gallup (from the 1940 book The pulse of democracy: The public-opinion poll and how it works by Gallup and Rae).

In his 1972 book, The sophisticated poll watcher’s guide (Princeton University Press), Gallup notes that the other newspaper-run straw poll came out in Raleigh, North Carolina [p240].

This poll seems to have been the one published in the Raleigh register, and North-Carolina state gazette on Friday 20 August 1824 (subscription required).

Thus, there were indeed two newspaper-run straw polls for the 1824 Presidential election, but the one published by the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian on on 24 July 1824 seems to have been the earliest by a couple of weeks.

One note of caution is appropriate, however. Although these were the first newspaper-run straw polls to be published there were also many straw polls that were never published (nor were they ever intended to be published). The article The Evolution of Polling in the United States, (published in Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 5, 2011, pp. 962–981) cites Tom W. Smith's paper The first straw?: A study of the origins of election polls (published in the same journal in January 1990 [Volume 54, Issue 1, 1 January 1990, Pages 21–36], but sadly behind a paywall) when observing that:

"...unscientific straw polls date to at least the 1824 presidential election, when informal trial heat tallies were taken in scattered taverns, militia offices, and public meetings."

So, the best that we can say is that the first newspaper-run, straw poll to be published was carried out by the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian during July 1824, in Wilmington, Delaware, and published by that newspaper on 24 July 1824.

It seems that earlier straw-polls were quite possibly taken, but the results were not preserved, and we are thus unable to say precisely where, or by whom, those polls were carried out.

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    I was wondering about 'Aru' - not a trace of it anywhere on the internet when I searched. Also, there's no source on the Wiki page. Nov 30, 2018 at 6:53
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    @LarsBosteen Yeah, I think you'd have to ask the Wikipedia editor that made the edit in 2015 about that. It looks to have been deliberate vandalism. I've corrected the Wikipedia page and included citations to Tom W. Smith's paper and also this answer (since Smith's article is behind a paywall) Nov 30, 2018 at 10:58

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