There is a vast amount of literature covering the period you are interested in. What follows is but a small sample, but it should set you on your way.
The following ancient sources cover 5th century BC Athens. They are not specifically about the daily lives and culture of Athenians but there is much to be gleaned from them.
Plutarch's Parallel Lives, notably Pericles Alcibiades and Nicias.
Plato's dialogues have much to say about Athenian attitudes and culture, especially The Republic.
On philosophers, Diogenes Laertius is the most important surviving ancient source. The lives and opinions of eminent philosophers is available on the internet archive.
Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian war covers the latter part of the century but is not, of course, only about Athens.
Herodotus' The Histories is perhaps more useful than Thucydides; although geographically wider ranging, it has many references to Athens and is less confined to war. This PhD thesis explores Herodotus' portrayal of women "against the backdrop of two influences, Greek mythology, and the social customs and thought pertaining to women in ancient Greek society."
I would also strongly recommend Googling Ancient Greek vases and browsing the images - many show Athenians going about their daily lives and the links will give you further information. You might want to start with this British Museum site on Daily Life in Ancient Greece: it shows what pots tell us about a range of topics (children, education, entertainment etc.).
For recent works, Jennifer Gibbon's Athenian Society focuses primarily on the 5th century, and Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks by Robert Garland also has what you want. Also useful are Democracy, Empire, and the Arts in Fifth-century Athens and Robin Osborne' Classical Greece, 500 - 323 BC (especially Chapter 6).