In Engblom v Carey (1979) Judge Walter R. Mansfield, writing for the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, found that:
that the National Guardsmen qualify as soldiers under the Third Amendment;
that the Third Amendment applies to state as well as federal authorities, i.e., is incorporated against the states; and
that the protection of the Third Amendment extends beyond home owners, that is, those only with a fee simple arrangement, but includes anyone who, within their residence, has a legal expectation of privacy and a legal right to exclude others from entry into the premises.
My opinion is that this article will never be obsolete because of its long history of abuse during both the Counter Reformation and, as noted in the Declaration of Independence itself, the prelude to the American Revolutionary War.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For example, in Counter Reformation France it was common to billet soldiers (dragonnades) (Aside: for Empire Total War fans, this is likely why dragoons, only, have a repression bonus.) in (Protestant) Hugenot households with explicit instructions to "be careless, and break things", as a means of coercing conversion to Roman Catholicism.
Looking beyond such blatant abuses:
It is a form of taxation (active young men consume a lot of provisions) that is entirely within the purview of the Executive branch. This puts it outside the checks and balances so carefully constructed by the Founders.
It is in fact a form of attainder (ie the loss of civil rights, specifically privacy within one's home, without trial), as its use can be arbitrarily directed against named individuals at executive discretion and it is de facto the imposition of a punishment against those named individuals.
Note also that the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück explicitly state in regard to sovereign states, that their governments:
shall enjoy without contradiction, the Right of Suffrage in all
Deliberations touching the Affairs of the Empire; but above all, when the
Business in hand shall be the ..., levying or quartering of Soldiers ...
This model of state sovereignty remains the model of our current international order, as well as being that within which the U.S. Constitution was formulated; so it grants to the Federal government by international convention and treaty any rights not explicitly removed or reassigned by the Constitution.