In Book I, Chapter IV of "An Essay on the Principle of Population" (6th edition, 1826), Thomas Malthus states how terrible the condition of women was among "savage societies" (to which he meant natives outside "civilised Europe" living mainly of hunting, fishing, and gathering, so excluding established agrarian societies). For instance, he writes:
It is justly observed by Dr. Robertson, that, "Whether man has been improved by the progress of arts and civilization, is a question which in the wantonness of disputation has been agitated among philosophers. That women are indebted to the refinement of polished manners for a happy change in their state, is a point which can admit of no doubt." In every part of the world, one of the most general characteristics of the savage is to despise and degrade the female sex. Among most of the tribes in America their condition is so peculiarly grievous, that servitude is a name too mild to describe their wretched state. A wife is no better than a beast of burden. While the man passes his days in idleness or amusement, the woman is condemned to incessant toil. Tasks are imposed upon her without mercy, and services are received without complacence or gratitude. There are some districts in America where this state of degradation has been so severely felt, that mothers have destroyed their female infants, to deliver them at once from a life in which they were doomed to such a miserable slavery.
This and other chapters contain several recounts by "Western travelers" of such ill-treatment of women by "savages". Whilst all this is certainly relevant anecdotal evidence, is there more robust evidence (built upon the advances of scientific inquiry and methods since Malthus' times) about the condition of women in these "primitive societies" around the world? A dedicated article to the history of women in Wikipedia, for instance, is scarce on ancient history and has many unsupported claims. A book refered there (Women's History and Ancient History) does not really focuses on "primitive societies". In this sense, any reference to particular research and/or books on the topic is most welcomed.
PS1: the term "savages" and "primitive societies" are surely arbitrary. Yet, Malthus had something in mind, which might include groups like hunters and gatherers, nomads, indigenous peoples, and so on. I am not particularly interested on conditioning the terms, but I am definitely not asking about ancient cultures like Egypt, Greek, Roman, Asyrian, Chinese, etc.
PS2: I hope the political correctness police does not immediately judge me as a denier of violence against women. I am not expressing any particular opinion. I am looking for scientifically-based analysis of the topic.