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According to encyclopedia.com, following on the Protestant Reformation,

In 1580, outraged at the deaths of Catholic missionaries, Pope Gregory XIII made a pronouncement that encouraged Elizabeth's murder, saying, as quoted in translation by Alison Weir in The Life of Elizabeth I, it would be justified to kill: "that guilty woman who is the cause of so much intriguing to the Catholic faith and loss of so many million souls. There is no doubt that whoever sends her out of the world with the pious intention of doing God service, not only does not sin but gains merit."

In the event, Elizabeth I was not assassinated; but were there other occasions when a Pope sanctioned the faithful to kill someone? If so, did it happen?

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    Crusades won't count because they didn't target one particular person ? – Evargalo Jun 4 at 8:05
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    That quote comes from pp. 334-335 of The Life of Elizabeth I, but she doesn't cite any source for it. – Geremia Jun 4 at 15:29
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    @Evargalo Deaths in wars are not called assassinations or murders. – Geremia Jun 4 at 15:37
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    Juan de Mariana, S.J. (1536–1624) wrote his De rege at the behest of Philip II, and it treats his tyrannicide/regicide thesis, but is there any evidence Gregory XIII supported that thesis? Do you have a primary source for your Gregory XIII quote? – Geremia Jun 4 at 15:55
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    Aaron Brick, at least in the case of the Albigenese Crusade, deposing the count of Toulouse was one of the goals, but I don't think the pope explicitly called for his murder. – Evargalo Jun 4 at 22:55

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