Looking at the current political and cultural scene in many societies, one sees a pattern of tension between on one hand modernists and progressives, who see themselves as moving forward and being on the right side of history, part of some Hegelian historical process that is almost inevitable.
And on the other hand conservatives and traditionalists who see the new values and cultural norms being imposed on them as aberrant and irrational, and wish to return their society or community back to the way it was decades or centuries before.
Consider for example gay marriage, there are those who ideally would like to go back to where marriage was between a man and woman, i.e they want to reverse the changes that were brought about by the LGBTQ movement. But I wonder, has any such reversal ever been achieved before?
Are there any historical cases, were there was a definite move towards a new ideological or cultural direction, which then got reversed by elements of the society which wished to return the "old ways"?
I'm tempted to say that the decline of various empires (Roman, Persian, Arab, etc...) might be interpreted as such reversals, but upon further thinking, I don't see anything specially ideological about those declines, nor was any particular group pushing for some sort of reversal at the time (were there such groups?).