There are much clearer cases than the one you cite, going back to the beginning of history: It's why Sparta made war on Athens in 431 BC. Thucydides cites "fear, honor, and interest" as the three causes of war and specifically states "What made war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta". See here for how that is still considered relevant in today's thinking.
In the specific case of the Congress of Vienna, all the other major powers were afraid of a resurgent France, but that was the cause of the peace terms, not the cause of the war(s), which were started by French expansionism and ideological differences, and in fact the wars began when France declared war on Austria on 20 April 1792. There was after that only one short period of peace in 1802-03 prior to the Congress of Vienna. England did break that peace, but I think it did so far more out of interest than fear. Neither England nor France had ever really kept to the peace terms, so it's not clear if either side had really wanted peace, and I'd call it "the same war" that started up again in 1803, just like we call it the "Peloponnesian War" on either side of the Peace of Nicias. I also doubt that there would have been peace for much longer in Europe even if England had completely stayed out after 1802.
An example of a war just a little ways out of the 19th century that was partially caused by fear is World War One. Germany issued the blank check to Austria to deal with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand however it wanted partly because the German army was eager to fight Russia before Russia became so powerful as to be unbeatable, which they figured was only a few years away.