Yes. A notable example is the Bonnet phrygien or Phrygian cap or the Liberty cap.
During the French Revolution it came to signify freedom and the
pursuit of liberty,...
Marianne, French symbol of liberty and reason, with a phrygian cap. Source: Marianne Républicaine
At the time of the revolution,
...l’antiquité romaine est très à la mode, et, quand la Révolution de
1789 éclate, c’est tout naturellement que Marianne, « Déesse » de la
Liberté, arborera le bonnet phrygien... porté dans l’antiquité par les esclaves nouvellement
Translation: ...Roman antiquity was very fashionable, and when the Revolution of 1789 broke out, it was quite natural that Marianne, "Goddess" of Liberty, should wear the Phrygian cap...worn in antiquity by newly freed slaves.
This symbol of the French revolution
was first seen publicly in May 1790, at a festival in Troyes adorning
a statue representing the nation, and at Lyon, on a lance carried by
the goddess Libertas. To this day the national emblem of France,
Marianne, is shown wearing a Phrygian cap. The caps were often
knitted by women known as Tricoteuse who sat beside the guillotine
during public executions in Paris in the French Revolution, supposedly
continuing to knit in between executions.
"...when the angry mob invaded the palace of King Louis XVI, they forced him to don a liberty cap, as shown in this French political cartoon of the 1790s." Text & image source.
In a comment below, TheHonRose mentions that
the Phrygian Cap was mistakenly used instead of the pileus
An article in Smithsonian Studies in American Art, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Autumn, 1987) by Yvonne Korshak throws some light on this. In The Liberty Cap as a Revolutionary Symbol in America and France she writes:
In the ancient world, the Roman pileus round or peaked, was the proper
cap to refer to Roman manumission. Over the centuries, however, the
Romans had represented a range of pileus types, and although the
peaked cap sometimes resembles the Phrygian, it does not duplicate
it, nor is one intended to represent the other. Furthermore, as the
cap of Eastern exotics, and thus of "foreigners," the Phrygian cap often appears on foreign captive and as a result came to be a visual
symbol of the prisoner. It appears that in the eighteenth century
the distinction between the cap of these foreign captives and the
pileus cap of the freed slave was blurred through the association of
both types of headgear with enslavement, a confusion abetted by a
plethora of antique cap types on illustrated monuments. Thus, the
Phrygian cap, while not originally a symbol of manumission, became, through confusion with the pileus, a symbol of liberty.