Did Napoleon Bonaparte ever try capturing what is today considered modern day Israel? Did he ever visit the land independently of capturing it?
In 1799, Napoleon went from Egypt, where his bases were, through modern Israel to Acre (Acco). In Acre he attempted a siege, lost it, and returned to Egypt. Acre was the northernmost point he reached in Israel.
Modern Israel, Egypt, Palestine and Syria were all part of the Ottoman Empire during the time of Napoleon. Under him, the French led an expedition from Malta to Egypt, which later travelled through modern Israel, capturing several port cities on the way.
The answer is then yes, Napoleon tried and succeeded in taking a couple of cities in what is modern Israel, though they were only briefly held and his real objective was to take Egypt.
He did not ever return to the Middle East.
It should be noted that there are several places today in Israel today in which one might find Napoleon's legacy, such as the cannons on Mount Carmel in Haifa pointing towards Acre.
Modern Israel (1949–) did not exist during the life of Napoleon (1769–1821).
Yes. Napoleon did take several coastal cities in what is today considered modern day Israel. You can read about it here.