Looking around the world, Christianity has spread to practically every corner. Christians are everywhere from South America to Australia to Korea. Even with Christian missionaries going all over the place, did people just pick it up and believe?

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    What has your research shown you so far? Where have you already searched? What did you find? Please help us to help you. Can you explain why the relevant Wikipedia pages and google searches didn't answer the question? SE sites work best if the questions are supported by preliminary research – sempaiscuba Sep 6 '19 at 19:26
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    it was never so easy. Look closer, read more detailed stories. How many centuries it took for the bulk of roman population to convert? If you think St Augustine of Canterbury just arrived in England and magically the country converted, read Beda's book - it took centuries with martyrs and relapsed kings. It took decades plus Guadalupe to convert Mexico. "Easy" is what it looks after it is written as a one-liner in a history book: "St X converted country Y" – Luiz Sep 6 '19 at 20:12
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    @ed.hank - Fortunately, for just such situations we have answer posting tools. They have all kinds of formatting options not available to comments as well. Perhaps this might be a good time to try them out? ;-) – T.E.D. Sep 6 '19 at 22:30
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    @T.E.D. that made me laugh. Let me re-read parts of the book and I will take a shot at it. – ed.hank Sep 6 '19 at 23:04
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    This source plainly says it took a thousand years in the leader. – axsvl77 Sep 7 '19 at 1:37

Since we're in the History SE I'll answer this from the historical perspective (and not the modern one where religious freedom is sacred to many countries).

In the middle ages in Europe, the freedom to choose one's religion wasn't often available. In fact quite often a monarch would attempt to force all his subjects to accept his religion. This is a major cause of religious wars. The Thirty Years' War is an example (this was also the last great religious war).

The war was preceded by the election of the new Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to religious liberty, which had been granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant.

Note this paragraph refers to the "northern Protestant states". In modern times it's inconceivable that an entire state can be Protestant, but it happened in history. The rulers of the northern states imposed religious uniformity, but rebelled when religious uniformity was imposed on them.

Given this, then, the real question is why rulers adopted Christianity in the first place (if they adopt Christianity then their entire country adopts it, spreading the religion). As you may be aware, early Christianity did not do well, and it was a persecuted religion, especially after the burning of Rome in 64 AD. However, in 312, something dramatic happened that led to the then Roman emperor, Constantine the Great, converting.

Eusebius of Caesarea and other Christian sources record that Constantine experienced a dramatic event in 312 at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, after which Constantine claimed the emperorship in the West. According to these sources, Constantine looked up to the sun before the battle and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words "Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα" (in this sign, conquer), often rendered in a Latin version, "in hoc signo vinces" (in this sign, you will conquer). Constantine commanded his troops to adorn their shields with a Christian symbol (the Chi-Rho), and thereafter they were victorious.

There's one more factor: Christianity is an evangelical religion, i.e. its adherents attempt to convert others to their religion. This led to holy wars. You may have heard of the Crusades which were aimed at reconquering the Holy Land after it was conquered by Muslims, but there were also Crusades aimed at forcing non-Christians to convert. This process lasted for much of the middle ages and ended when Lithuania, the last Pagan nation in Europe, converted to Christianity in 1387 (see also the plenty other Christianization of X articles on Wikipedia). So no, people did not just "pick up and believe" the religion; plenty had to be forced to convert.

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  • I'm not an expert on this period of history, I just know something about it. If an expert spots any problems here feel free to correct this answer and/or write your own (in which case I can delete this one). – Allure Sep 6 '19 at 22:33
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    Through most of tthe Middle Ages, most of Europe wan't Christian yet. Ireland, France, Western Germany, Italy and Greece were, but that's about it. Spain was Muslim; Germany and the Nordic countries were pagan as was much of England. The Middle Ages is actually the history of how Europe became Christian. – Pieter Geerkens Sep 6 '19 at 22:52

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