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Modern umbrellas have a rider (a hollow cylinder) that slides up the shaft to force the umbrella vanes open. It is held in place by a spring latch that protrudes close to the top of the shaft - I've seen it called the 'top spring'.

How early was this convenience widely manufactured? Was there some other locking mechanism used before that (e.g. friction, a bolt/screw, etc.)?

I've tried looking for images of antique umbrellas but it's hard to determine the age of the umbrellas pictured, and most of them don't show the upper part of the shaft.

[I'm reading an old passage in a foreign language describing the locking mechanism and the exact details are important for understanding the entire discussion therein].

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    Looks like folding/self-closing umbrella have been around for a while. See US959383A, Folding umbrella (1909), and US1091895A, Self opening and closing umbrella (1913). No idea how early they've been mass produced though. – Denis de Bernardy Sep 17 '19 at 7:48
  • Quite possibly the answer is in the museodellombrello.org – Aaron Brick Oct 25 '19 at 23:31
  • I tried to find it on google but exact invention date was not mentioned. The basic umbrella was invented more than 4,000 years ago. There is evidence of umbrellas in the ancient art and artifacts of Egypt, Assyria, Greece, and China – SrilankaAttractions Feb 5 at 11:05

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