Based on current literature describing the Egyptian language such as Hoch (1994), Allen (2013) and Selden (2015), it adds to my understanding that egyptians developed written phonograms which could represent just one sound, a combination of two sounds such as ms or up to three different sounds such as nfr.

My question is whether there are what one may call quadriliteral or tetraliteral signs standing for four different sounds? If so, where can I find references to them?

  • Would this be better on the Linguistics site?
    – T.E.D.
    Oct 28, 2019 at 5:48
  • It might as well be on Linguistics.SE, but it encompasses investigation about past writeen sources and relevant bibliography, both of which are features of historical studies.
    – Pablo Ivan
    Oct 28, 2019 at 12:14
  • 1
    Well, I can move questions between sites upon request. If you change your mind, let us know. It looks like you did get an answer, so perhaps that's good enough for you.
    – T.E.D.
    Oct 30, 2019 at 16:04

1 Answer 1


Yes there are, but not many it appears. An exhaustive list can be found in Hieroglyphenschlüssel: Entziffern, Lesen, Verstehen by Petra Vomberg and Orell Witthuhn, but this partial list gives one example: F39 𓄪 jmꜣḫ.

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