I am new to Egyptology, what are the most recommended non-biased books on Egyptian History, Hieroglyphs, mythology, etc... that are not biased and written by experts in the field?

By non biased, I mean that they were not written by people who tend to brighten (or the opposite) the Egyptian history (for example if they are Egyptians).

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    Welcome to History:SE. Source requests are generally off-topic on this site. You might find it helpful to review the site tour and Help Centre and, in particular, What topics can I ask about here? and How to Ask. Nov 7, 2019 at 19:44
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    I would assume that most Egyptian history books written by Egyptians are as biased as American history books written by Americans or French history books written by the French. Bias is a part of human nature.
    – MCW
    Nov 7, 2019 at 19:53
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    Even AI will be as biased as the information it was trained on. forbes.com/sites/tomtaulli/2019/08/04/…
    – ed.hank
    Nov 7, 2019 at 19:55
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    @ed.hank -I don't know that there's a formal name for this, but as a holder of a CS masters who has studied AI, personally I prefer to call this phenomenon RIRO (Racist In, Racist Out).
    – T.E.D.
    Nov 7, 2019 at 19:59
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    @Alex of course Herodotus wrote his histories some 2,400 years ago. But that's what makes it so cool. Sure now we can read hieroglyphs (which is amazing), but Herodotus actually talked to the priests of ancient Egypt , and wrote down what they said! It's totally worth reading, along with more modern works. Nov 7, 2019 at 23:52

2 Answers 2


There are no non-biased histories.

Histories are always written by people, and these people have viewpoints. They list just the facts about kings and battles, ignoring the common people? That's a bias. They focus on the patterns of social development, ignoring the kings and battles? That's a bias.

Historians learn to question their primary and secondary sources. Who wrote it? Who was the audience? What was the motive for writing? No different with tertiary sources. Read several histories, compare them, think about the authors.

At most, you will find one whose biases agree with your own and believe that it is bias-free. But it isn't. That is called an echo chamber effect.


You may begin with: Redford, Donald B., ed. (2001). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. for a general account. Ancient Egypt existed for very long time, and it has been very much studied, with plenty of books written on specific periods and various aspects of its history. This one can give you a general orientation.

You do not have to worry that books on ancient Egypt may be biased: the modern Egyptians (Arabs) have nothing to do with ancient Egypt. Even not related:-) Ancient Egypt was first conquered by Persians (26 centuries ago), then by Macedonians, then by the Roman empire, and finally by the Arabs. So its culture (including the language, writing, religion, etc.) was completely forgotten in the process, and was only recovered by the modern science, after their ancient writing was deciphered in the early 19th century.

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    I strongly disagree with the assertion that bias is not a concern wrt ancient Egypt. You may already be aware of the Black Egyptian hypothesis which easily connects to all kinds of debates about racism. Further, the amount of fringe-history bullshit you can find on the pyramids, the Sphinx, and the Dendera light is absolutely breathtaking. These are only two examples; there is obviously much, much more.
    – 0range
    Nov 8, 2019 at 16:51
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    @0range: I did not mean bullshit history, but only the professional, mainstream one. This kind of fringe history can be found on any country.
    – Alex
    Nov 8, 2019 at 18:38

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