I'm looking for an answer as to what the purpose of each project site was during the Manhattan Project. The following image illustrates (but only includes some of the sites) where each site was located and their name. enter image description here

Is there an exhaustive list of the name of each site and their purpose?

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    Please do and document prior research before asking. I believe there are Wikipedia pages for most of these. You've asked many questions without documenting prior research; please read Help center and meta to understand how our site works.
    – MCW
    Jan 16 '20 at 1:57
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    It appears that you have plagiarized the map of the sites from the Wikipedia page on the Manhattan project. The map is used as a header to a list of sites and their purposes. You've used that to ask for a list of sites and their purpose. How is the Wikipedia information inadequate? In my opinion, this question should be closed as too basic.
    – MCW
    Jan 16 '20 at 12:53
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    To be a bit more specific, that image's Share-and-share-alike license requires some kind of effort at attribution in order to legally reuse. I've gone ahead an added a link which is probably sufficient, but we'd request that you do this yourself in the future, as its a lot more work for others to track down where a random new image was horked from than it would be for the author to do it from the go.
    – T.E.D.
    Jan 16 '20 at 16:50

Hanford and Oak Ridge had one common advantage: easy access to a lot of electric power.

Both places (especially Hanford) also had a lot of fairly clean cold water to serve as cooling water.

Okey, the intent in the sites:

Hanford was intended to be the plutonium metal producing site (later the Savannah river reactors was built too) including the piles and the plutonium extraction plants in different generations.

Oak Ridge is partly research/production research and uranium enrichment, it was the main uranium enrichment plant (later the Portsmouth plant was added too.)

Los Alamos was the plutonium and uranium research sites where issues regarding the weapon design was researched and tested (including the kick the dragon test.) I have a copy of the Rhodes paper (why that would be found in a book store in 1994 in a small city in Sweden could be because that city is built on the largest deposit of uranium in Europe....)

The AEC has a memorial text: An Atomic History - Reactors, Fuels and Power Ascension 1

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    OP is asking for what the sites actually did, not why they were located where they were.
    – F1Krazy
    Jan 16 '20 at 11:08

There were four main sites during the Manhattan Project. Specifically, two research facilities in Chicago and Los Alamos (New Mexico), and two complexes in Tennessee and Washington State for the actual creation of the atomic bomb.

The initial theoretical work was done in Chicago, because there was a large concentration of nuclear scientists and some existing facilities. In 1942 and into 1943, experimental work was done on controlling the fission process in nuclear reactors, using first graphite, and later heavy water.

By 1943, continuing the experiments in Chicago was deemed too dangerous, and the theoretical and experimental work on the bomb mechanism was moved to newly built facilities in Los Alamos, New Mexico, which was far from cities, and was therefore isolated from the general population.

The actual "manufacturing" (e.g. of plutonium from uranium), was initially done at a newly built complex at Oak Ridge Tennessee, which had the advantages of cheap hydroelectric power produced by the government-supported Tennessee Valley Authority, and was "somewhat" remote from population centers. Later, it was decided that nearby Knoxville constituted a population center, so a new, even more remote manufacturing facility was built at Richland, Washington (the Hanford facility), which had hydrolectric power from the Snake River, but was farther away from cities than Oak Ridge.

There were also a large number of "satellite" facilities, each with specialized functions, but this covers the main ones.

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