I’m studying the history of emigration and immigration in the 19th century. My question is: How did an immigrant become a citizen in the nineteenth century? Thank you!

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    Like most SE sites, we prefer that the question contain some evidence of preliminary research. What have you looked at so far, so that we don't duplicate sources you've already consulted? – Mark C. Wallace Feb 12 at 21:46
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    Please narrow this down. Which country? – Lars Bosteen Feb 12 at 22:55

To the US? Waiting period of 5 years for incoming immigrants. This waiting period was reduced from 14 years in 1802. Furthermore, "aliens" had to declare years in advance their intent of becoming citizens. Immigration was limited in the 19th century, even with the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The 1882 Immigration Act required a $.50 tax, equivalent to around 12 USD today. Also, Bureau of Immigration was created in 1891, to "nationalize the immigration process and allow for more strict vigilance." Prior to this, immigration was dependent upon individual states. Ellis Island was founded in 1892.

Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalization_Law_of_1802 https://www.eldridgestreet.org/history/becoming-a-citizen-in-the-late-19th-and-early-20th-centuries/

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