Primarily from viewing lectures and interviews about the ancient history of the Levant, I understand that before Israel, Judea and perhaps also Edom states were created, their area included groups such as:

The era I mean to early Levant Bronze age until the rise of Israelite-Juedan-Edomite society and the whereabouts I mean to are primarily north Sinai peninsula, to north Arabian peninsula including the vicinity of modern day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and perhaps parts of Syria.

'Jacob-el in the Land of Esau and the Roots of Biblical Religion', VT 67 [2017] 481-484 by Israel Knohl, PhD.

My problem

I don't have access to many if not most academic peer reviewed journals and I don't know where to look for for an article which contains a table that tries to make an historical "sorting" reconstruction of essential data about these peoples.

My question

Is there a reconstruction for whom and when were the peoples of the ancient Levant just before Israel, Judea and Edom (especially one that is presented in a table categorizing these people in a table by at least Era BC, Geographical location/s and Gods worshiped)?


It's a big ask!

See if you can get a registration for jstor.org

I believe there was an Exodus and it happened 1446 BC. Your ref to Mitanni refugees means Knohl obviously believes in a much later Exodus (or no Exodus at all).

Amalekites - mentioned many times in scripture. https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=amalek&qs_version=KJV Descendants of Esau, a subset of Edomites.

Amorites - very prevalent in Canaan. Well known. Look them up in google. Hammurabi was Amorite.

Canaanites - descendants of Canaan. Sometimes I think it refers more generally to the occupants of the land of Canaan. When used more specifically it refers to Phoenicians. The Canaanites built Carthage and took their Baal worship with them as shown in the name "Hannibal", and in the evidence of child sacrifice.

Girgashites - no one knows anything about them.

Habiru - may have been nomadic, mentioned in the Amarna letters, taking an early Exodus view, when "habiru" is mentioned in the Amarna letters it may mean "Hebrew", ie the followers of Joshua.

Hittites - came from central Turkey. Were in the land of southern Levant even in the time of Abraham, around 2050 BC. (Abraham born 2166 BC, IMO). Their language is early Germanic, not Semitic. Much can be found about them.

Hivites - Mainly south Lebanon. The Gibeonites were Hivites.

Horites, these were Hurrians, see International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (James Orr), volume 2, p756-757, by F.W. Bush. It is online. Again much is known.

Hyksos - so many settled in Egypt in the second millenium that they were able to take over the country. When they were driven out Josephus says that some of them captured Jerusalem: if that is true then the Jebusites may have been Hyksos.

Jacobelites - never heard of them.

Jebusites - the occupants of Jerusalem only.

Kenites - a tribe of Midian (North West Arabia) some of whom believed in the God of Israel. They might be a family of the Midianites. Look up the scripture references at Biblegateway.com ... https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=kenite&qs_version=KJV

Perizzites - not much is known about them.

Shasu is an Egyptian term and may simply be a general term for foreigners, esp nomadic, or with no fixed homeland: so the "Shasu of Jahweh" spoken of on inscription in Sudan in my view refers to the Israelites.

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The best way to create a list. Is simply to get hold of available information, and construct a list yourself.

Semitic speaking, Sumerian Kingdom of Kish 5400bc


The Sumerian king list states that Kish was the first city to have kings following the deluge, beginning with Jushur. Jushur's successor is called Kullassina-bel, but this is actually a sentence in Akkadian meaning "All of them were lord". Thus, some scholars have suggested that this may have been intended to signify the absence of a central authority in Kish for a time. The names of the next nine kings of Kish preceding Etana are all Akkadian words for animals, e.g. Zuqaqip "scorpion". The East Semitic nature of these and other early names associated with Kish reveals that its population had a strong Semitic (Akkadian speaking) component from the dawn of recorded history. Ignace Gelb identified Kish as the center of the earliest East Semitic culture which he calls the Kish civilization.

Upper Egyptians 4400bc/3800bc


Ka is one of the best attested predynastic kings with Narmer and Scorpion II. Beyond Abydos, he is attested in the predynastic necropolis of Adaima in Upper Egypt and in the north in Tarkhan, Helwan, Tell Ibrahim Awad, Wadi Tumilat and as far north as Tel Lod in the Southern Levant.

I also have reason to believe that the Upper Egyptians were not Africans, and were more likely Indians.

This is due to this statement below from an Egyptian pharaoh, that made a racist comment regards to Sudanese people, whilst invading Nubia.

It is not a comment one would expect from an African pharaoh.

Racist comment from a Pharaoh

Racist comment

"[Reign of] Sneferu. Year ... The building of Tuataua ships of mer wood of a hundred capacity, and 60 royal boats of sixteen capacity. Raid in the Land of the Blacks, and the bringing in of seven thousand prisoners, men and women, and twenty thousand cattle, sheep, and goats... The bringing of forty ships of cedar wood (or perhaps "laden with cedar wood")..."

Naqada skeletons from pre-dynastic Egypt, dating to between 3700 and 3800bc, were morpholigically proximate to those of Indians and Europeans.

Monuments and Excavations

Craniometric analysis of predynastic Naqada fossils found that they were closely related to other Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting the Horn of Africa and the Maghreb, as well as to Bronze age and medieval period Nubians and to specimens from ancient Jericho. The Naqada skeletons were also morphologically proximate to modern osteological series from Europe and the Indian subcontinent. However, the Naqada fossils and these ancient and recent skeletons were phenotypically distinct from fossils belonging to modern Niger-Congo-speaking populations inhabiting Tropical Africa, as well as from Mesolithic skeletons excavated at Wadi Halfa in the Nile Valley.

Persians 3300bc


Elam (/ˈiːləm/; Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾 haltamti; Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠 NIM.MAki; Hebrew: עֵילָם‎ ʿÊlām; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎩 Ūvja) was an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana (US: /ˌsuːʒiˈænə/ UK: /ˌsuːziˈɑːnə/; Ancient Greek: Σουσιανή Sousiānḗ), a name derived from its capital Susa.

In 2600bc a mystery peoples turn up in the Levant, named the Aratta.



Aratta is a land that appears in Sumerian myths surrounding Enmerkar and Lugalbanda, two early and possibly mythical kings of Uruk also mentioned on the Sumerian king list.

A give away clue as to who those people were comes from the legendary description given to them

Come from a land rich in Gold

According to Sumerian literature

It is a fabulously wealthy place full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, as well as the artisans to craft them.1

Well, during this period, gold mining was being conducted in Saudi Arabia

Mahd adh Dhahab 2600bc

Saudi Arabians

The Mahd Al Thahab (Arabic: مَـهـد الـذّهـب‎, "Cradle of (the) Gold"), is a small gold area in the Arabian Peninsula. It is located in the Province of Al-Madinah, in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. Gold was first mined in Arabia c. 3,000 BC. A second period of activity was during the Islamic Abbasid period

But this is only from what is written in written records.

I am sure all those peoples, in this general area, predated written records.

And who the upper Egyptians were is speculative. It would appear they definitely were not African however. As Sneferus comments, this is not consistent with that of an African, and appears a little racist. And both Indian, and European fossils have been found amongst the upper Egyptian Naqada skeletons.

However it makes more sense that the Pharaohs were Indians, and not Europeans, as the Pharaohs spent over 2000 years fighting Levantine groups, which would include Elamites.

And the Naqada period ranges from 4400bc to 3250bc, therefore there is nothing to say that any European fossils found in upper egypt were there since 4400bc.

It is more likely then that the Pharaohs were Indian, and any Europeans living in upper Egypt, were purely citizens.

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