Primarily from viewing lectures and interviews about the ancient history of the Levant, I understand that before Israel, Judea and perhaps also Edom states were created, their area included groups such as:

The era I mean to early Levant Bronze age until the rise of Israelite-Juedan-Edomite society and the whereabouts I mean to are primarily north Sinai peninsula, to north Arabian peninsula including the vicinity of modern day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and perhaps parts of Syria.

'Jacob-el in the Land of Esau and the Roots of Biblical Religion', VT 67 [2017] 481-484 by Israel Knohl, PhD.

My problem

I don't have access to many if not most academic peer reviewed journals and I don't know where to look for for an article which contains a table that tries to make an historical "sorting" reconstruction of essential data about these peoples.

My question

Is there a reconstruction for whom and when were the peoples of the ancient Levant just before Israel, Judea and Edom (especially one that is presented in a table categorizing these people in a table by at least Era BC, Geographical location/s and Gods worshiped)?


1 Answer 1


It's a big ask!

See if you can get a registration for jstor.org

I believe there was an Exodus and it happened 1446 BC. Your ref to Mitanni refugees means Knohl obviously believes in a much later Exodus (or no Exodus at all).

Amalekites - mentioned many times in scripture. https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=amalek&qs_version=KJV Descendants of Esau, a subset of Edomites.

Amorites - very prevalent in Canaan. Well known. Look them up in google. Hammurabi was Amorite.

Canaanites - descendants of Canaan. Sometimes I think it refers more generally to the occupants of the land of Canaan. When used more specifically it refers to Phoenicians. The Canaanites built Carthage and took their Baal worship with them as shown in the name "Hannibal", and in the evidence of child sacrifice.

Girgashites - no one knows anything about them.

Habiru - may have been nomadic, mentioned in the Amarna letters, taking an early Exodus view, when "habiru" is mentioned in the Amarna letters it may mean "Hebrew", ie the followers of Joshua.

Hittites - came from central Turkey. Were in the land of southern Levant even in the time of Abraham, around 2050 BC. (Abraham born 2166 BC, IMO). Their language is early Germanic, not Semitic. Much can be found about them.

Hivites - Mainly south Lebanon. The Gibeonites were Hivites.

Horites, these were Hurrians, see International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (James Orr), volume 2, p756-757, by F.W. Bush. It is online. Again much is known.

Hyksos - so many settled in Egypt in the second millenium that they were able to take over the country. When they were driven out Josephus says that some of them captured Jerusalem: if that is true then the Jebusites may have been Hyksos.

Jacobelites - never heard of them.

Jebusites - the occupants of Jerusalem only.

Kenites - a tribe of Midian (North West Arabia) some of whom believed in the God of Israel. They might be a family of the Midianites. Look up the scripture references at Biblegateway.com ... https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=kenite&qs_version=KJV

Perizzites - not much is known about them.

Shasu is an Egyptian term and may simply be a general term for foreigners, esp nomadic, or with no fixed homeland: so the "Shasu of Jahweh" spoken of on inscription in Sudan in my view refers to the Israelites.

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