Welcome on the stack exchange. For a head on head battle, that I understand as two armies walking until they are in sight of each other and engage, there is a specific term: Encountering battle
EDIT: the correct term in english is meeting battle (As another user said. Sorry, I'm not native english speaker)
However you could have some specific types of such a battle, like an ambush, hit-and-run tactics, etc...
And as far as I know, I think you would like to name the true type of battle that Stirling Bridge was: I guess it is a stand-still battle.
EDIT: the correct term in english is set-piece (As another user said. Sorry, I'm not native english speaker)