I am looking for examples of absolute rulers who voluntarily resigned their power. To get the ball going, here are two from Roman history:
- Chandragupta Maurya
- Jigme Singye Wangchuk
- Ivan the terrible (for a year, sorta).
- Charles V
On the other hand, Solon fails to make list as not being quite an absolute ruler, and the emperor-monks that were once common in Japan also do not fit as they resigned but retained a share of influence on the government nevertheless. Also, regents who faithfully turned over the realm to a king who grew up are to be excluded - I am looking for rulers in their own right, however that right was acquired.