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The Wikipedia article on the Wilmington coup of 1898 has this:

In 1868, North Carolina ratified the 14th Amendment, resulting in the recognition of Reconstruction, and in the state legislature and governorship falling under Republican rule. Democrats greatly resented this "radical" change, which they deemed as being brought about by blacks, Unionist carpetbaggers, and race traitors. Freedmen were eager to vote, tending to support the Republican Party that had emancipated them and given them citizenship and suffrage.

For a temporary period[when?] Confederate veterans were barred from office and voting. Many white Democrats had been embittered since the Confederacy's defeat. Insurgent veterans joined the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), which orchestrated considerable violence at elections in order to suppress the black vote.

When and how were Confederate veterans barred from office and voting in NC after the Civil war?

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I suspect you'd need to look at NC's legislative response to the Reconstruction acts. Very quick preliminary research suggests that NC completed the requirements by mid 1868.

The Reconstruction Acts established military rule over Southern states until new governments could be formed. They also limited some former Confederate officials' and military officers' rights to vote and to run for public office. (However, the latter provisions were only temporary and soon rescinded for almost all of those affected by them.) LOC.GOV

The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 began the period of time known as Radical Reconstruction. These laws included the following measures:

The South was divided into five military districts and governed by military governors until acceptable state constitutions could be written and approved by Congress.

  • All males, regardless of race, but excluding former Confederate leaders, were permitted to participate in the constitutional conventions that formed the new governments in each state.
  • New state constitutions were required to provide for universal manhood suffrage (voting rights for all men) without regard to race.
  • States were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in order to be readmitted to the Union. FacingHistory

ncpedia offers the full text of the act

The constitutional convention met October 2, 1865 as planned and adopted the provisions outlined by President Johnson in his proclamation, with the issue of the war debt being hotly debated. The convention approved the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery and the legislature ratified the amendment on December 4, 1865.

. . . July 2, 1868. Within three weeks, North Carolina’s Republican representatives were seated in the U. S. Congress, and North Carolina was officially re-admitted to the Union. HistoricSitesNC

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