What type of workers were there who participated in building the Pyramids. What were they called and what was their role? Also, what sort of treatment did they get?
Not slaves, or Jews come to think of it. This Discovery Link had some info from archaeology about who built the pyramids.
This pretty much sums it up "the pyramids were built by skilled workers and bureaucrats (who lived there all year long) and farmers (who provided seasonal labour during the inundation when they could not work on their farms)".
Intrestingly enough this pretty in depth BBC link is the first result for "pyramids paid in beer" (read: subsistence rations). It contains a summary of archaeological evidence about both the permanent and much larger temporary (seasonal) workforce.
There were many types of workers in Ancient Egypt who worked on pyramids. They were not slaves because the farmers got paid, got medical treatment when needed and got decent food and drinks. Probably the most important were the scribes who had to write down the orders and also they were in charge of the organization. Then there were the miners who mined from one of the three different quarries and supplied the pyramids with stone. After that were the mortar makers who made the mortar to stick the stone together on a pyramid. There are also carpenters who were in charge of the wood and logs in which mallets were made and the logs were used to make it easier to move the stone blocks which weighed about 2 tons average. The carpenters were also useful for making the right angle tool, which was used to make sure the blocks were perfectly right angled. The leaders were usually soldiers. The leaders' job was to plan out the pyramid and give orders to the workers. The most common type of worker out of three which were miners, stone carriers and the builders were the carriers. There was usually about ten people to pull the stones from the front and two more to push from behind. It was common for two more workers to spill water in front of the blocks to make the ground slippery in order to make the process go quicker and to waste less energy. When the blocks got to the pyramid, they were made into finer detail. Workers used the right angle tool to make perfect right angles and a level tool to make sure the blocks were correct heights.
Making a pyramid takes 35 work teams at a time, with 20 people on each team. Every two minutes a block would need to be delivered in order to proceed with a routine to make sure the pyramid is done on time. When needed to haul a giant statue of a pharaoh or any statue of some sort, it takes 172 workers. Workers: -Underground quarry man: A worker who’s underground chipping stone for the pyramid. -Unskilled laborer: A worker that has to haul big blocks of stone out of the quarry. -Granite quarry man: workers have stone headed hammers, wooden mallets and copper chisels. Their job is to shape granite or chip it so other workers can haul it to where it needs to be. -Water carriers: Hauls drinking water or water for mud bricks -chisel sharpeners: This workers job is important; the chisels are made out of copper so it get dull very easily. -Bargemen: Bargemen are the workers whom take the granite from Aswan. -Mason: Considered the “skilled workers” they put on airs because they are full-time workers of the pharaohs, using wooden rods to lever blocks into place. -Scribe: Writes down everything that happens, they basically keep track of most things. -Carvers and painters: Goes inside the tomb and enlarges the designs that have been made until they made until they fill a wall. The carvings are most likely painted in traditional colors. -Doctors: These workers look after the tomb makers. -Bread makers: Are always woman, 10 loaves is the usual amount of bread eaten a day. -Beer makers: beer’s made by woman, tons of beer is made a day. Workers are entitled to 2 jugs a day. In Egypt even children drink beer. -Astrologer/priests: They decide when the stars are right, before the pyramid is built for the new pharaoh. People pay priests to