In 1922, the Soviet economy was suffering from high inflation and the government introduced a new gold-backed currency called Chervonets which was equivalent of the old Russian imperial gold coin of 10 roubles. Initially, chervonets was exchanged for 11,400 roubles. As the roubles and chervonets were both in circulation, every day, the State Bank published exchange rate between roubles and chervonets.
The same year, the State Bank started issuing banknotes denominated in chervonets which had inscription that 1 chervonets is equivalent of 7,74234 grams of gold. Chervonets was freely convertible and was traded on foreign exchanges.
By the end of 1923, chervonets mostly replaced old Soviet roubles and comprised 80% of the money supply. In 1924, the Soviet government started also issuing State Treasury Notes in denominates of 1,3 and 5 gold roubles (1 chervonets equals 10 gold roubles) but they weren't gold-backed. In 1925, the rouble was pegged to the chervonets with the same rate of 1 chervonets to 10 roubles.
With the end of New Economic Policy, increasing money supply, introduction of price controls, chervonets started losing its convertibility and in 1930 stopped being traded on foreign exchanges. In 1937, new banknotes for 1,3,5,10 chervonets had new inscription which didn't mention its gold equivalent but still stated that they are "guaranteed by gold, precious metals, and by other assets of the State Bank". In 1947, the State Bank issued new banknotes in denominations of 10,25,50 and 100 roubles. The dominations of 1,3 and 5 roubles were still issued as Treasury notes. The last Soviet banknotes were issued in 1961 with the same distinction between "State Bank Note" for denominations of 10,25,50 and 100 roubles and "State Treasury Note" for denominations of 1,3 and 5 roubles but with no real distinction in practice.