How much damage was USSR already capable of doing, in the event of a nuclear war, by the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
How many ICBMs and strategic bombers did it have, and what were their capabilities?
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WP:Mutual assured destruction states:
By the time of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, both the United States and the Soviet Union had developed the capability of launching a nuclear-tipped missile from a submerged submarine, which completed the "third leg" of the nuclear triad weapons strategy necessary to fully implement the MAD doctrine.
The Soviet arsenal in 1962 included, but was not limited to:
This is just a one-per-type list of delivery platforms that were definitely operational in 1962, assembled via a cursory WP search. Exact numbers of operational units and warheads for the time frame will be pretty hard to come by, but we are talking several dozens of megaton warheads deliverable on targets in Europe and USA, including (via the SLBMs) second strike capabilities.
I just saw your other question regarding the Cuban crisis, and now have a better idea where you were coming from with this question. Note the following caveats:
I.e., putting those TBMs and IRBMs on Cuba significantly increased the threat to mainland USA specifically, and also significantly reduced US response times in case of a Soviet first strike. It definitely changed the strategic situation and did put the Soviets back on par regarding the threat of PGM-19 Jupiter missiles stationed in Italy and Turkey that had been posing a similar threat to the USSR.