Reading historical accounts, it is not infrequent to read about exiled persons, from Trotsky to the Puritans leaving England. And, nowadays, some look wistfully to legal ways to get rid of their undesirables, for example, Shamina Begum in the UK. While it is legally possible to expel a resident alien from your territory, my understanding is that countries can neither ban their citizens from return nor make them stateless which effectively prohibits exile of people who don't hold a dual nationality.
However, again back to history, there have been many cases of exile. When did the last "real exile" take place?
The exiled person is forced out of their own country. They do not choose to leave and aren't deported off to another country they are a citizen of. It is also not choosing not to return to avoid prosecution at home.
The exile is official, i.e. the person does not "leave for their own health" before they get arrested or the like. They are condemned and banned from entering their country and border officials could be expected to refuse entry. The expulsion is also despite recognition of their citizenship (Myanmar pretends Rohinga are not citizens).
- To be clear, the recognition of citizenship also implies that the exile is not a deportation for immigration fraud, whether mistaken or not. Some countries have automatic retroactive processes to deny immigration, even citizenship, to people who participated in crimes against humanity, chiefly the Holocaust. To me, that's an immigration issue.
So, for example, when Baby Doc Duvalier flees Haiti and goes to live in France that is not so much an official exile as the simple recognition that he would face prosecution by authorities in his homeland. France took him in, less out of sympathy, than to give him an escape route so that he would not seek to prolong his dictatorship. Presumably Haiti let him leave to get rid of him.
Who last met both those criteria for a formal exile, mostly in democratic countries? It is still practiced somewhere?