I know this is a hot issue these days, but I am trying to keep my question factual here.
When fraud is alleged in an election, I am usually familiar with one of two cases:
- One or more challengers allege that the incumbent carried out fraud (the assumption being that the incumbent was sufficiently powerful to manipulate the administration of the election); or
- Both the incumbent and the challengers accuse each other of fraud (while none admits guilt, in such cases, international observers often decry fraud by all sides).
My hypothesis is that for fraud to be so widespread to affect the results of an election, the more powerful party (presumably the incumbent) would be the one who could allow such a situation in their favour. I consider it unlikely that an incumbent who has the executive power over institutions (including election commissions) would sit by and allow such widespread fraud that it would unseat them. They would usually be in the position to prevent such fraud from occurring.
In contrast, I found it rather odd in the 2020 United States election that Donald Trump, the incumbent, strongly alleged fraud by his leading challenger, Joe Biden, whereas the challenger did not accuse the incumbent of any election fraud. I am by no means any kind of expert in history, but as a general reader of the news and some light history, I do not recall having encountered such a scenario. (I am fully aware that in this case, the independent courts in that country uniformly rejected the accusations of fraud, but I am interested in other situations where such a claim has been made, especially so strongly, whether or not the accusations were substantiated.)
When else has this happened, that is, the incumbent accusing a challenger of election fraud whereas the challenger did not make any such accusation against the incumbent? I am mainly looking for national-level elections in any country of the world at any time period (where democracy has been practiced), but lower-level elections would also be welcome.