Alexander the Great invaded the Achaemenid Empire in 334 BC, successfully conquering it and dying in 323 BC. After his death, his Empire fell apart starting a series of wars called the Wars of the Diadochi. Considering that all of Alexanders generals had a portion of the largest Empire in human history up to that point to call upon, it seems likely that the casualties from such a war would be massive.

Are there any sources on the total casualties of this war? Are they in the thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands? More? Was it anywhere near, say, the Warring States period in China?

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    Do we have any reliable casualty numbers from any of the wars in Antiquity? For instance, according to this list the death toll from the wars of Alexander's conquests was 142,000+ but is this number reliable? From what I remember, the size of armies involved in the battles of Antiquity was inflated by historians. May 3 '21 at 0:12
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    There cannot be a reasonable answer to this question. We simply do not have reliable numbers. Even for recent wars, this i a notoriously difficult question.
    – Alex
    May 3 '21 at 0:43
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    I don't know how much confidence historians have in their estimates for the various battles, but the only chance I can see of you getting any kind of a useful answer here is to limit your question to one of the wars, and to ask about the major battles (but then I guess Wikipedia covers that already). May 3 '21 at 2:05
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    @MoisheKohan - The few times I've looked into similar questions for Persia or parts east in the ancient period, honestly we're doing great that we know even in rough outlines what was going on there. Pretty much only Greek sources have survived, and this was damn far from the center of Greek culture.
    – T.E.D.
    May 3 '21 at 15:48
  • @T.E.D.: Agreed, we are lucky to have what we have. My point is that numerical estimates are likely to be unreliable (even in the case of best-documented wars). Also, historians (until relatively recently) tended not to count civilian casualties. May 3 '21 at 16:04