During the Peninsular War the 92nd Highland Regiment (the "Gordon Highlanders") was moving from Lisbon to join with Wellington's army behind the Torres Vedras lines. On their arrival, on 15 October 1810, they were billeted in ruined houses at Crozendera, Portugal. (This according to the 1901 The Life of a Regiment: The History of the Gordon Highlanders, by, Charles Greenhill Gardyne, and Cyril Falls, p.232.)

Some other similar 19th century works, such as those cited by the Wikipedia entry for the regiment, give the spelling as "Crozendeira".

Can anyone pinpoint this location?

  • 2
    Welcome to HSE. A question should be written in such a way that it can be understood even by someone who did not read the title. May 18, 2021 at 17:51
  • 1
    threestones.co.uk/books/peninsula/pdf/… (you should give a source like this). I do not help much: the first names on the list searchable on gmaps are Albergaria-a-Nova, Barbas Novas (were there "old Barbas"?), and Portoalegre. The first 3 names appear to be old toponyms - I also confirm that they are not modern words or have any obvious meaning to modern portuguese speakers. As they appear to go from north to south, then east to spain, probably they landed on the north of portugal (Aveiro, Porto, etc). Maybe a native from there could have clues.
    – Luiz
    May 18, 2021 at 17:56
  • 2
    found a clue: archive.org/stream/historythorquee00fylegoog/… " the 50th and Tlst Regiments were moved back to Zibrera, and the 92nd to Crozendeira" Note the alternative (and more portuguese-like and less spanish-like) orthography with the "i". Interestingly, Zibreira exists (again, with "i"), very close to Torres Novas (famous fortress and battle)
    – Luiz
    May 18, 2021 at 18:03
  • 1
    casadecampomoinhosdagozundeira.com might be near there May 19, 2021 at 14:22
  • 1
    I do believe Kimchi lover has found the place. The 92nd Regiment were coming from Lisbon to the Torres Vedras lines and Gozundeira (Crozendeira) is very close to Torres Vedras. Apologies to all for my ambiguity and thanks for taking the time to respond. Obrigada!
    – Cakeij
    May 19, 2021 at 20:28

1 Answer 1


A guess is that the 92nd was billeted at Gozundeira between 15 Oct and 15 Nov 1810. This tiny place is in the middle of the map on page 10 of the very informative modern essay The Lines of Torres Vedras by G.W.A. Napier. That map shows Gozundeira as being (to my untrained eyes) within the operational area of Division 1 (to which the 92nd was attached), so its a plausible place for the 92nd to have camped.

As noted in the question statement, the spellings "Crozendera" and "Crosendeira" appear in regimental histories written many decades after the events. A possibly better source is the 1829 account by John T. Jones, one of the engineers that built the fortifications of Torres Vedras, namely Memoranda relative to the Lines thrown up to cover Lisbon in 1810. On page 38 he writes:

The valley in rear of Gosandiera and Zibriera was blocked up by a well flanked abattis, field batteries of position were established on various flanking points of the same ground, and roads of communication formed to them, so that in a short time this open portion of the front quite changed its face, and appeared little less formidable than the other parts of the line.

This book has a map, titled Ground in front of Lisbon, evidently made in 1815; this map's spelling of the place name is hard to make out, but is approximately "Go???dira". The map is reproduced in the 1847 edition of another book by Jones, where is clearly "Gosendira". An annotated version of this map is on the website of the Friends of the Lines of Torres Vedras.

The modern place Gozundeira shows up on Google maps exactly where Jones's map shows Gosendira, about a kilometer to the north west of Zibreira. Whether the spellings like "Crozendera" in the regimental histories are due to misreading the lettering on Jones's 1829 map, or to mishearing the spoken name, or to memory lapse, or reflect the soldiers' own private versions of the names of the places they encamped, I don't think we can tell at this date.

My newer version of the answer erases explicit mention of Luiz's suggestions and confirmations of various details in comments. So: thank you, Luiz!

  • 1
    Good guess. Right next to Zimbreira where its companion regiment was located. And "Cr" and "G" also may LOOK similar in print.
    – Luiz
    May 20, 2021 at 13:08
  • English is my first language and Portuguese my second. I can definitely see how the British military could translate Gozundeira as Crozendera back in the day. Many thanks once again.
    – Cakeij
    May 22, 2021 at 17:02
  • @Cakiej Also, sloppy handwriting might have played a part.
    – Spencer
    May 22, 2021 at 18:42
  • @Cakeij I have edited my answer to state the case more logically. Thank you for posing a very interesting question, which has created a desire on my part to visit the Lines of TV area, and see what Gozundeira. May 22, 2021 at 19:50
  • You are welcome. And another detail about Gosendeira x Gozundeira: a single 's' between vowels is pronounced like 'z'. Thus, no englishman could be expected to get this right by hearing. Besides that, a spelling reform (early XX century) changed words from 'z' to 's' (e.g, Brazil->Brasil and Luiz->Luís, my name is on the old form) - confusion between old and new placenames / map labels is expected.
    – Luiz
    May 23, 2021 at 19:29

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.