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Say when people as nomads, and started to form settlements with other people, where would these primitive settlements first started to appear, they would have first started to settle in regions around Israel and Turkey. My question is, where would they have settlements have appeared next, in areas not around the latter, and what reasons would they have for settling here, e.g. fertile lands for crops, natural defences like a hill and large quantities of natural resources, e.g. wood and clay? I would assume rivers and/or places with access to the ocean, but did they have sufficient technology for sea-faring vessels for settling near the ocean to be viable?

Smithsonian was my primary source. By about 14,000 years ago, the first settlements built with stone began to appear, in modern-day Israel and Jordan. "This is a list of dates associated with the prehistoric peopling of the world"

We will call a settlement a " A group of people forming a semi-permanent structure with a permanent population of at least 3-ish or more"

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  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.
    – MCW
    Jul 10 at 19:42
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    Does the Wikipedia article on sedentism answer your question?
    – Brian Z
    Jul 10 at 20:33
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    Stone settlements survive in the archeological record much better than wood settlements. As such, there's a bias towards finding ancient settlements in areas where stone is the the more common building material. Jul 11 at 2:33
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Settlements started to pop up after the end of the last glaciation pretty much everywhere there was a good river valley and some kind of useful domesticable crop.

Examples would be the Indus Valley with Tibetan Barley, peas, and sesame seeds, The Yangtze with rice, The Yellow River with millet, The Tehuacán Valley with maize, and The Altiplano with potatoes. All of these places appear to have domesticated their staple crop around 10,000 years ago, and we start to get archeological finds commensurate with cities in the vicinity of 3000-2000 years ago.

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  • A recent episode of the Tides of History is an interview discussing large scale settlements nearly five thousand years ago. Jul 11 at 2:29
  • This appears to be misled by the Qs frame to be about agriculture? As I read the Q, it is about settlements, and those depend on food-rich environments, which can be present without humans actively terraforming or any domestication. As such, I'd wager that such settlements (duration also undefined by Q) appear much earlier, particularly in maritime environments. Eg: Get hunting right, get nearly all your vitamins from fish, be happy, multiply, why move place at all? Jul 11 at 11:46

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