In the answer, I limit myself to two months, November-December of 1917.
What you have to realize is that the Bolshevik Revolution replaced one government of dubious legitimacy with another one. To make things more confusing, Bolshevik Government also declared itself "provisional." In theory, everything was supposed to be sorted out by the Constitutional Assembly, elections to which were held in November of 1917 (after the Bolshevik Revolution). In practice, in provinces, power changed to the local Soviets (again, confusingly, of several kind), not all of which were sympathetic to Bolsheviks.
It's important to note here that even before the Bolshevik takeover in October/November of 1917, Russia had "dual" power structure, effectively shared by the Provisional Government (and its local representatives) and Soviets. What happened locally after
October/November is that this dualism had disappeared.
Here are few passages from the book by Richard Pipes,
"The Russian Revolution" followed by ones from
"A Peoples Tragedy A History of the Russian Revolution" by Orlando Figes.
- From Pipes:
After the February Revolution:
On March 9, hardly more than a week after the new government had come into being, Guchkov, the Minister of War, cabled General Alekseev to Mogilev: "The Provisional Government has no real power of any kind and its orders are carried out only to the extent permitted by the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, which controls the most essential strands of actual power, inasmuch as the troops, railroads, and postal services are in its hands. One can state bluntly that the Provisional Government exists only at the sufferance of the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies."
After the Bolshevik takeover (October/November 1917):
In the other cities of Russia, the situation followed a bewildering
variety of scenarios, the course and outcome of the conflict in each city depending on the strength and determination of the contending parties. (In the countryside, at this point, the October coup had no impact except to intensify land seizures; there it did not make itself felt until the following summer.) In some localities, the Bolsheviks joined hands with the SRs and Mensheviks to proclaim "soviet" rule; in others, they ejected their socialist rivals and took power for themselves. By early November, the new government controlled the heartland of the defunct empire, Great Russia or, at any rate, the cities of that region. For the present the borderlands as well as the villages remained outside its reach. The stratagem of carrying out the coup in the name and on behalf of the Soviet concealed from nearly everyone its true significance. The illusion prevailed that the Soviet, the stronger partner in the dual power arrangement that had existed since February, had formally assumed full responsibility, and hence that nothing much had really changed. The illusion gained strength from the fact that the new authority called itself also a Provisional Government. In the original draft of the October 25 announcement declaring the deposition of Kerensky's cabinet, Lenin wrote "Long Live Socialism!" but he had second thoughts and crossed out the phrase, apparently to emphasize (for now) the image of continuity. The earliest official use of the word socialism occurred in a document that Lenin drafted on November 2. In the aftermath of the coup, the ruble lost one-half of its exchange value in terms of the U.S. dollar, but shares on the Petrograd Stock Exchange held steady. There was no panic even among the affluent.
The fall of the old Provisional Government caused few regrets: eye witnesses report that the population reacted to it with complete unconcern. The man on the street seemed to feel that it made no difference who was in charge, since things were so bad they could not possibly get any worse.
...The population of what had been the Russian Empire tore apart the state, the product of 600 years of historical development. By the spring of 1918, the largest state in the world had disintegrated into many overlapping entities, large and small, each claiming sovereignty over its territory. As in the Middle Ages, Russia turned into a realm of self-governing principalities.
The first to detach themselves were the borderland areas inhabited by non-Russians. Beginning with Finland, which declared its independence in December 1917, one ethnic group after another went its separate way, sometimes justifying its action with the right of "national self determination" proclaimed by the new government. But the centrifugal forces also affected Russia proper, as provinces, regions, and even cities asserted independence from central authority. The Bolshevik acceptance of the anarchist principle of soviet rule encouraged this process. Accord ing to one contemporary source, in June 1918 there existed on the territory of what had been the Russian Empire at least thirty-three 'sovereign' governments.
- From Figes (describing the dynamics within the local Soviets after the takeover):
In province after province the Right SRs had lost control of the Soviets to the extreme Left. In the northern and central industrial provinces, where the Bolsheviks and Left SRs could count on the support of most of the workers and garrison soldiers, as well as a large proportion of the semi-industrial peasants, most of the provincial Soviets were in Bolshevik hands, usually through the ballot box, by the end of October, and only in Novgorod, Pskov and Tver did any serious fighting take place. In some of these towns, especially where there was a garrison, the Bolsheviks simply used their military strength to oust the opposition from the Soviet and install their own 'majority'. Further south, in the agricultural provinces, the transfer of power was not generally completed until the New Year and was often quite bloody, with fighting in the streets of the main provincial towns (Orel, Kursk, Voronezh, Astrakhan, Chernigov, Odessa, Kherson, Ekaterinoslav, Sevastopol and others). In most places the extreme Left organized its supporters among the soldiers and workers into an MRC, which seized control of the government institutions after defeating the cadet or Cossack forces loyal to the city Duma. New elections to the ruling Soviet were then held which, in one form or another, were usually rigged. As in Petrograd, the SRs and Mensheviks often played into the hands of the extreme Left by boycotting the Soviet and these 're-elections'. Yet, without real military forces of their own, or a large and active citizenry willing to take up arms in defense of the democracy, they had little option. The political civilization of the provincial towns was not much more advanced than in backward peasant Russia and outside the capital cities there was no real urban middle class to sustain the democratic revolution. That was the tragedy of 1917.
There is a separate question regarding behavior and attitudes of the local bureaucracy. I will add few words on this later. (In short, they went on strike.) The situation was further complicated by the railroad strike declared by ВИКЖЕЛ (railroad trade union), demanding a power sharing between all the "socialist" parties (including the moderate Socialist-Revolutionaries, known as right-SRs and Mensheviks) and causing further fragmentation of the already fragmented country.
Edit: Regarding Petrograd's Stock Exchange (a question mentioned in your comment). By the Sovnarkom (Bolshevik's government) decree of December 29, 1917, stock and securities trading became illegal (the text, in Russian, of the decree can be found here), which means that Stock Exchange was shut down by that time. Nevertheless, something weird was still going on.
Richard Pipes, writes, describes the period of March of 1918:
Although they [Russian-German peace negotiations] had no result, the mere fact of these negotiations taking place helps explain the puzzling equanimity of Russia’s business community toward a regime which openly threatened it with economic ruin and even physical annihilation. Russia’s bankers and industrialists treated Bolshevik pronouncements as revolutionary rhetoric. In their view, the Bolsheviks would either turn to them for help in restoring a collapsing economy or fall. So it happened that in the spring of 1918 the Petrograd Stock Exchange, formally closed since the outbreak of the war, [it's unclear why Pipes says this since he surely knows that the Exchange was reopen in 1917] suddenly came to life, as securities, especially bank shares, rose in over-the-counter trading. The optimism of big business, reinforced by Bolshevik overtures and the knowledge that the government was negotiating with Germany a trade agreement that would open Russia to German capital, caused it to turn a deaf ear to the pleas of White generals for financial assistance. In the spring of 1918, the White movement appeared to businessmen a hopeless gamble compared with the prospects of collaboration with the Bolshevik Government.