Various sources over the Internet and the book I read invariably give different explanations as to what and who killed Richard the 1st.
The book I read states that the King died "having sustained blood poisoning after a crossbow bolt struck him in the shoulder" and that the King’s sister, "Joanna […] ordered the man who made the fatal shot to be flayed alive". (Jones, Dan. Crusaders: The Epic History of the Wars for the Holy Lands. Viking, 2019.)
The Creative Historian states that "the arrow proved difficult to remove from his shoulder, and the necessary 'surgery' led to the wound becoming infected." (On This Day: Death of Richard the Lionheart)
Wikipedia tells a different story as to who ordered the killer to be flayed: "According to one chronicler, Richard's last act of chivalry proved fruitless when the infamous mercenary captain Mercadier had the boy flayed alive and hanged as soon as Richard died." (Flori, Jean (1999f), Richard Coeur de Lion: le roi-chevalier (in French), Paris: Biographie Payot, ISBN 978-2-228-89272-8.)
As to the identity of the killer, it seems open to debate according to French Wikipédia: "The man who made the shot was not identified with certainty and chroniclers offer conflicting accounts. Roger de Hoveden holds the knight Quercy Bertrand de Gourdon responsible, while Mathieu Paris and Raoul de Dicet claim it was a minor local noble named Pierre Basile. It could also be Jean Sabroz or Dudo. (Richard Cœur de Lion, Wikipédia, accessed on 2021-10-10).
Do historians actually know and agree on the following points?
- Was it the bolt or a botched surgical procedure that killed the King?
- Who ordered the execution of the killer?
- Who was the killer?