# How to get per 1000 deaths numbers for the 1932-34 Holodomor in Ukraine for the rural areas only, against the less starving town population?

As to wikipedia, Holodomor is about:

• Country: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union Location: Central and eastern Ukraine Period: 1932–1933
• Total deaths: Around 3.5 million

And

How many of these Holodomor excess deaths were in rural areas and which rural Holodomor excess deaths per 1000 would then be the numbers for each region and overall? How does this look for the urban deaths?

On region level, with the large town populations, the numbers are already high, they must be much higher in the rural areas then than in the towns.

• Which deaths are you referring to when you ask "How many of these deaths were in rural areas", the regional death tolls from the table or for the country as a whole? Mar 5, 2022 at 14:39
• @SteveBird I meant the per 1000 excess deaths so that it is comparable. The absolute deaths in the left column are not meant. Mar 5, 2022 at 16:28

I had a look at the source of this table, Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University, and found at first that there was no per 1000 map of the deaths of only the rural population although the overall percentage is known (which was a wrong finding, I found that map later in the same source, see at the bottom):

4 percent of the urban and 16 percent of the rural population in 1933.

# Full quote of the source

Map of Total Direct Famine Losses in Ukraine by Region, 1932-1934
Overview

This map shows absolute numbers of excess deaths in Ukraine's seven oblasts and the Autonomous Moldavian Socialist Soviet Republic (Moldavia). The shading of each region represents the total number of excess deaths during 1932-1934, while the bar charts in each region represent annual excess deaths. Numbers of excess deaths for 1932-1934 are divided into three intervals, depicted by three different color-scale shades, and the number for each region is shown on the map.

The total number of 1932-1934 famine losses in Soviet Ukraine is estimated at 4.5 million, with 3.9 million direct losses (excess deaths) and 0.6 million indirect losses (lost births). The 1933 midyear population of Ukraine is estimated at 29.6 million. The 3.9 million direct losses are approximately equivalent to 13 percent of the total population in 1933. The 3.9 million is composed of 0.3 million in urban areas and 3.6 million in rural areas; these numbers are approximately equivalent to 4 percent of the urban and 16 percent of the rural population in 1933. It is important to note that the Holodomor is commonly understood as occurring in the period 1932-1933. However, the analysis here shows that significant famine-related losses also occurred in 1934. This is the first time that regional estimates of direct losses have been made for Ukraine.

# Full source information, again quoted from the source

Sources

This map visualizes data based on estimates of deaths during the Holodomor period derived under the "Estimation of Regional Losses of the 1932-1934 Famine in Ukraine" project conducted by Oleh Wolowyna (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) and Omelian Rudnytskyi, Nataliia Levchuk, Pavlo Shevchuk, and Alla Kovbasiuk (Institute of Demography and Social Studies in Kyiv).

The estimation here of Holodomor losses is based on separate yearly urban and rural population reconstructions by age and sex, using data from three Soviet censuses (1926, 1937, and 1939), as well as annual vital statistics and migration data for the 1927-1939 period. 1926 and 1937 census data were adjusted for undercounts and other problems, while 1939 census data were adjusted to eliminate falsifications implemented to cover up large population losses understood to be due to the famine and other repressive policies. Yearly registered births and deaths were adjusted for undercounts, especially during famine years when the undercount reached extreme levels. Based on these data and detailed data on migration, taking into account urban-rural reclassification, yearly population figures were reconstructed according to age and sex for Soviet Ukraine's eight regions, as well as for urban-rural areas.

# Raw calculation

One could calculate this for the whole rural areas:

The 3.9 million is composed of 0.3 million in urban areas and 3.6 million in rural areas; these numbers are approximately equivalent to 4 percent of the urban and 16 percent of the rural population in 1933.

With the also said 29.6 Mio population, with the share of 3.6/3.9=92.3% in rural deaths, the sum of "Total Deaths (1932–1934 in thousands)" is 3942.5. Then (own calculation):

full population:

and rural population:

and town population:

So that on the whole, the Holodomor excess deaths per 1000 were:

• 161.7 (rural)
• 40.4 (town)