Going into the Congress of Vienna, the Great Powers (usually defined as Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) had many goals in mind of what they wanted out of the negotiations. In fact, this video by Historia Civilis does a wonderful job of presenting their goals. In the video, the presenter doesn't really cover the goals of the smaller powers like Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, some Italian states, and the lesser German states because in reality, only the opinions of the Great Powers mattered. I was wondering where I can find information about what the delegates from those other powers sought after, what goals they had in mind, and what they did at the Congress.

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    Find a book about the Vienna congress and look up the names of the relevant countries in the index.
    – Ne Mo
    Commented Oct 24, 2022 at 22:54
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    Do you have any good books in mind? @NeMo Commented Oct 25, 2022 at 15:00
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    @MrMineHeads: Reference requests are explicitly Off-Topic as "Opinion Based". If that is the gist of your question, however disguised, it needs to be closed. Commented Oct 25, 2022 at 16:11
  • @PieterGeerkens The 'disguise' should be relatively easy to fix? If MrMineHeads rephrases this to simply leave out the reference request, and asks plainly? (Naturally, this assumes H:SE's answers should include the appropriate references. BTW: Is this really off-topic? history.meta.stackexchange.com/a/897/26786 Highest A says "in favor"?) Commented Oct 25, 2022 at 17:07
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    @PieterGeerkens I did not mean to disguise a request for references, I genuinely wanted to know what the goals and actions for those lesser powers were in the Congress. I only replied to Ne Mo with the ask for a reference since they were the one that brought up the idea of just finding a book. Commented Oct 25, 2022 at 17:39

1 Answer 1


Since reference requests are considered off-topic (which could be discussed btw, but not the subject here), I can give some hindsights about what those goals small powers had at Vienna. This is mainly based about what their situation was by that time:

  • Sweden: Russia is big and close: Sweden under Bernadotte had to ensure that his country keeps its territories, while Russia might want to try to expand.
  • Portugal: Get stronger: Portugal was close to get captured by Spain, through French troops. This has been the case in the past. So its goal at Vienna was to obtain guarantees. It was also to try to benefit from the independence of Spanish colonies
  • Denmark: Its goal is similar to Sweden. Though less threatened by Russia, England and Prussia could be a danger: the former because it bombed COpenhagen, the latter because it is close and want to expand

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