I'm specifically interested in muzzle-loading rifle artillery, so no smoothbores and no breach-loaders. The period I'm interested in is roughly 1820 - 1860, for both the army and navy.
But first I should compare to the background of the hand-held rifle, such as the Kentucky Rifle. To operate this rifle, you first must wrap the bullet in leather, then ram it down the bore (after the powder). But most problematically of all, after 3 to 4 shots the bore became so fouled with powder residue that it was too hard to ram another bullet down. You had to take the time to clean it or else use smaller shot, which does not catch the rifling grooves and therefore is as inaccurate as muskets.
So this means that the rifle was a low rate of fire weapon with only a few shots before it reverted to a musket, and therefore could not be the predominant weapon on the battlefield (until later improvements).
Therefore I'm very curious how rifled artillery dealt with these issues.
I've read about the Parrot Rifle, James Rifle, Sawyer Rifle, Brooke Rifle, Wiard Rifle, and Rodman Gun. None of it talks about any fouling problems, and has very little info on effective rates of fire in the first place. I also looked at some smoothbore predecessors just to hope to glean something, such as the Paixhans Gun and Dahlgren Gun, but did not find many clues.
I'm pretty sure all of these guns used the same black powder, so would have had the same residue fouling their bores. Would this not make it too hard to ram a large cannonball down the muzzle after a few shots? If so then the sustainable rate of fire should have been far too low to favor over the traditional smoothbore cannons.
One more thing, about how hand-held rifles solved this problem: Henri-Gustave Delvigne invented a type of bullet that could flatten when you rammed it (after it was already at the bottom of the breach). So the bullet was smaller than the bore and fit down it just fine, but then rammed to a bigger shape that then catches the rifle grooving. Then the Minie Ball came a decade later, also invented in France, that was no longer a ball but a more complex shape with an hollow cone base that expands from pressure gasses when fired, increasing its diameter to catch the rifle grooves that way.
So I did look for these things when reading about the rifled artillery, but could not find explicit mention of them. There is a picture of some special shaped artillery rounds for the Paixhans Gun, which as far as I know is not even a rifled bore, but rather a smoothbore. The James Rifle article also has a picture of a modern-looking cylindrical shell that had a lead skirt that expanded. However I couldn't find ammunition pictures and info for the other rifled artillery, or even pictures of "Hotchkiss Ammo".
Did all such rifled artillery of this era have the cylindrical ammo with expanding bases? If so that would answer the question. Was there some other method of dealing with muzzle-loading rifled artillery?