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What are those Russian/Turkic/Mongolian semi-conical felt caps brimmed with fur called? When and from which culture did it originate from, and when and how did it get adopted by the Slavs? Did the Slavs wear any other hats before they adopted them? Here are some pictures: From a Russian medieval movie Also from the same movie Stock image Diagram Painting of Turkic archers Turkic helmets cartoon stock image

Also what are the names of the variations? Like the ones with metal caps instead of felt, or larger fur brims, plumes, and cloths that cover the back and sides of the head?

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    What research have you already done (so that it is not repeated by those answering)? Dec 31, 2022 at 7:18
  • I have spent days on and off over the course of this year looking at russian diagrams on multiple different sites and Wikipedia but I have not found anything yet. I think it's super weird that this hat, so commonly seen in depictions of medieval russians, turks, and mongols, has no name that can be found on the internet. All the results that come up when I search up russian hats are Papakhas and Ushankas. Dec 31, 2022 at 12:31
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    In Russian, this is called simply шапка (shapka) which is usually translated as "hat" or "cap". See for example, the most famous of them: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monomakh%27s_Cap
    – Alex
    Dec 31, 2022 at 14:07
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    Russian Wikipedia cites Ivan Zabelin that "shapka" was originally used to refer to precisely this type of headgear, and only gradually became associated with the concept of caps in general (not putting this in an answer as I don't have access to the book so I can't confirm the citation)
    – SPavel
    Jan 26, 2023 at 2:21

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The traditional summer hat, composed of a conical top sewn from six gores attached atop a cylindrical lower part, is called a "toortsog". As a summer hat it is usually made of felt or wool rather than fur, though the lower band is occasionally fur even when the top is not.

Other types of traditional Mongolian hat include the gugu, loovuuz, and traditional four-eared conical hat.

I've seen claimed that, traditionally, Mongolians regard their hat as an "outward representation of their soul". Assuming even minimal validity to this, it's clear that many variations my be simply personal choices that don't have unique names.

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  • I searched up "Toortsog russian" and nothing came up. I don't think it's the chiefly mongolian hat that you just described, it might have predated the Kievan Rus and the Mongols. Also the pictures I attached don't really look like Toortsogs Dec 31, 2022 at 6:08
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Don't know its name(s) in Turkic/Russian/Mongolian.

In Arab culture, the version of this conical hat with brim is called: "sarāqūj". Used by Mamluk military and believed to originate from Central Asia.

Another hat that seems to have been popular during the Mamluk era was the sarāqūj. It was a high, pointed, conical hat of Central Asian origin with a brim that most frequently was turned up, but also could be turned down. The sarāqūj was usually white or a light tan. It could also be two-toned, with a light brim and a colored crown. The point of the conical crown could be plain or have a decorative metallic knob, pointed plaquette, tuft, or long plumes extending from it. The cone could be simple or paneled in vertical sections ...

From Arab Dress. A Short History - From the Dawn of Islam to Modern Times (2003), p.68.


Another source is Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath:

Crusades-83-84-Mongol_Light_Cavalrymen


Finally, it is a distinctive Mongol headgear of some elite status because Hülegü (Il-Khanid) presented a sarāqūj to a prisoner they rescued.

The context for this is provided by the Syrian scholar al-Yūnīnī, who relates that al-Saʿīd Ḥasan had been imprisoned by al-Nāṣir Yūsuf, the leading Ayyūbid in Syria, in the castle of al-Bīra, a major crossing point of the Euphrates. When the Mongols passed through, they had released him, and as a sign of great honour, Hülegü himself had presented him with Mongol clothing – a brocade mantle and a hat (qabāʾ zarbaft wa sarāqūj) – which from then on he always wore.

From p.140 - STEWART, A. (2016). If the Cap Fits: Going Mongol in Thirteenth Century Syria. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 26(1-2), 137-146. doi:10.1017/S1356186315000887

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