Arguably, most marine infantries use "land ranks", i.e., the ranks used by the ground forces, e.g., 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Lieutenant, Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel, etc. For example,


Since the Napoleonic invasions, the Portuguese Marine Infantry has been disbanded twice and the Italian Marine Infantry has been disbanded once. Each time they were resuscitated, they could have adjusted to the norms used by other European navies, but, apparently, they did not. Is there a reason why the Portuguese Navy and the Italian Navy deviate from the norm?


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    ...and in fact it looks like Portugal is one of those countries where the Marines are still part of the Navy. Even less of a mystery.
    – T.E.D.
    Aug 5, 2023 at 20:11
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    @T.E.D. That is the case almost everywhere. Spanish / Portuguese / Dutch / British / Russian Marines are part of their countries' navies. The USMC is the notable exception, though it's under the Department of the Navy alongside the USN and the USCG (during wartime) Aug 5, 2023 at 20:19
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    Armed forces often set a high value on tradition, so they probably continue to do so because 'that's how we've always done it'. Aug 6, 2023 at 7:29
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    @KateBunting Indeed. However, the Portuguese Marine Infantry, arguably the 2nd oldest, was created in 1621 when the Kingdom of Portugal belonged to the Spanish Habsburgs. However, Spanish Marines use non-naval ranks. Aug 6, 2023 at 12:08
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    Britain's Royal Marines were originally and primarily army regiments starting with the Duke of York and Albany Maritime Regiment of Foot in 1664, followed by others. The Royal Marines as part of the naval establishment under the Admiralty was established in 1755. Army organization and ranks were used all along. Could other navy's early marines developed through similar evolutionary process?
    – R Leonard
    Sep 16, 2023 at 9:27


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