The answer to your question is that the Greeks and Greco-Macedonians did further their colonization over the greater Middle East after Alexander's death in 323 BC/ BCE. However, the semi-autonomous regions of Macedonia and Thrace proper did not exert colonial influence over the Middle East-(more specifically, Israel). The Seleucid Dynasty, was the Imperialist Power-(part of the greater Diadochi), who governed and ruled over the Middle East and Israel until the 100's BC/BCE.
The Seleucid Dynasty was based in Syria, more specifically, in the city of Antioch-(located in present-day Turkey). The imperial territories that The Seleucid Dynasty governed, spanned from the Middle East...to the outskirts of greater Persia. Countries, such as Phoenicia-(present-day Lebanon), Syria, parts of Anatolia-(present-day Turkey), Nabatea-(present-day Jordan), Mesopotamia-(present-day Iraq) and Israel, were under The Seleucid Dynasty for approximately 200 years. Sometimes, the Seleucid Emperors are referred to as, "Greco-Syrians", which, in a way...they were; that is to say, while the Seleucid Rulers were ethnically Greek, as well as ethnically Greco-Macedonian, they also became linguistically and culturally Syrianized over the centuries, due to their lengthy colonial presence in that part of the world.
The Seleucid Dynasty, was by far, the largest of the Diadochi Empires, though it was also, one of the shortest lived of the Diadochi Empires. While Ptolemaic Egypt was much smaller in size-(when compared with the Seleucid Empire), its longevity far exceeded the Seleucid Dynasty by more than 100 years.
With regard to Ancient Israel and the Seleucids, this is the period of The Maccabees-(or Maccabean "Revolt") against the Greco-Syrian Seleucid Empire...it is also the time when the holiday of Channukah, was born-(which commemorates the retaking of The Second Temple of Jerusalem from the Greco-Syrian Seleucid pagan Empire and the subsequent "rededication" and "repurification" of The Temple). It was under the leadership of Judas Maccabeus who overtook the Jerusalem Temple, the city of Jerusalem and greater Judea from the Seleucids and helped to weaken Seleucid domination over the greater Middle East during the 100's BC/BCE.
By the year 100 BC/BCE, Israel was a free and sovereign nation, the Seleucid Empire became History and Greece proper-(including, Macedonia and Thrace), were part of the expanding and burgeoning Roman Empire.