I am looking for ancient civilizations in central and south of Africa. Were there any ancient cities, such as Timbuktu, Benin, or Zimbabwe for which there are scientific tools or other artifacts giving evidence of early civilization?
What's ancient for you?
- There are old paintings in South Africa
- The Kingdom of Kush isn't in central/south of Africa, so I think it does not count.
- There is Great Zimbabwe (11th century)
- The Mali Empire existed from 1230–c. 1600. This cultural heritage is actually a victim of war in Mali.
Wikipedia list some more Pre-Colonial African States in the article History of Africa